Environmental scanning or information gathering is often considered the first step of strategy formulation. This essay reviews and critiques two contemporary research studies in this field, one quantitative-the other qualitative, to show that strategic leadership can be understood from both external and internal perspectives.
The ability to think forward, to foresee possible outcomes and to act accordingly, is a vital human trait. I just completed a 45-page paper that reviews the literature on foresight to determine what we can learn. Here’s the abstract.
Recent concerns about the integrity and transparency of business, politics, and sport leaders is spurring on new research into a framework of authentic leadership.