Tag Archives: 2000

The Year 2000 FAQ

I wrote the Year 2000 FAQ back in 1995 to brief cities, communities and alliances on how the public was planning to mark the arrival of the Millennium. It is organized in four sections: Continue reading

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Trace the History of Talk 2000

Talk 2000Trace the History of Talk 2000
People have been talking about the year 2000 long before the Talk 2000 forum was launched. This essay introduces five key conversation threads about the millennial year, which have kept people talking about 2000 for the past 30 years.

  1. Threshold 2000
  2. Trends 2000
  3. Agenda 2000
  4. Renewal 2000
  5. Jubilee 2000

Threshold 2000

The first conversation thread about the year 2000 has been “Threshold 2000.” This thread takes A.D. 2000 as the millennium, the 1,000 year rule or reign of Christ. Whether literally or figuratively, it sees the year 2000 as a cataclysmic shift, a turning point, a tidal wave of global transformation that will sweep away an old civilization and usher in a golden age. The metaphor here is the edge of a cliff.

This is not a new idea. For more than 500 years, psychics, seers, pundits and prophets have been transfixed by the year 2000. No other year in all of human history, before or beyond, has gathered such incredible prophetic bets as A.D. 2000, talked up by such luminaries as Isaac Newton to Michel Nostradamus, Jeane Dixon to Ronald Reagan.

Some swear it will bring doomsday. Others claim it will usher in a utopian age. Either way, those who see 2000 as a threshold date look toward 2000 through millennial lenses.

The year 2000 attracts us for the same reason people have been attracted by millennialism, utopianism or progressivism. We believe that paradise is not behind us, but just ahead, perhaps within our reach, or that of our children. Despite the mess we find ourselves in, we believe in the possibility of transformation.

Threshold 2000 talk has been particularly attractive to bible teachers. Hal Lindsey’s The Late Great Planet Earth became the best-selling book of the ’70s. He convinced millions we were a terminal generation, not due to an environmental apocalypse, but because of a nuclear Armageddon. His latest book is called,Planet Earth–2000 A.D. (Western Front, 1994).

Not just bible prophecy, but “New Age” teachers now talk about the new millennium in catastrophic terms. A first class example of millennial talk is the MMList, an esoteric forum on the new millennium originating from America Online “Millennium Matters” folder. It provides documentation on supposed earth changes and personal revelations about the coming millennium period. In the article, “Requiem for the Twentieth Century,” Michael Grosso shares how the apocalyptic imagination pervades our historical mind and how metaphysical longings affect our future vision.

In an article entitled, “ Postdoomdayism“, James Gollin develops the idea that an appreciation of the environment, culture, and history is redefining millennialism from a religious fringe obsession to an intriguing new interdisciplinary focus on the world as global system.

The millennium myth of 2000, however, is full of tensions. Cultural historian Hillel Schwartz calls it a two-sided coin. Before you get to paradise, you must pass through Armageddon. You will usually find a couple of “Threshold 2000” threads on Talk 2000, documenting the influence of Christian or New Age millennialism on popular culture.

Trends 2000

The second thread of conversation from 1965 – 1995 about the new millennium is “Trends 2000.” Unlike “Threshold 2000”, “Trends 2000” highlights the continuity, achievement and growth of humankind. If “Threshold 2000” peers through millennial lenses, “Trends 2000” prefers to view things from mountaintop vistas to put the bimillennium in perspective.

One of the earliest “think-tanks” to talk “Trends 2000” was “The Commission on the Year 2000” of the mid-’60s, led by sociologist Daniel Bell. Packed with distinguished educators, government officials and researchers, this commission saw its role not so much in “making predictions, but to the more complicated and subtle art of defining alternatives,” as U.S. society moved toward the turn of the century. Get a unique view into “Trend 2000” talk by reading Daniel Bell’s 1967 article on the Commission entitled, “The Year 2000–The Trajectory of an Idea”.

With the year 2000 on our horizon, there is an irresistible urge to look backward and then forward, retrospect and prospect. These actions express our human instinct for putting things in order.

Lists now sum up the achievements of the past 2,000 years and chart possibilities for the new epoch. Standing on the summit of 2000, thousands of writers will wet their index fingers, raise them to the sky and see which way the wind is blowing.

In Roman mythology, Janus was the wind god who brought new beginnings. It is no accident that the first month of our year is named January. In most cases, Janus was pictured with two faces, one old which looked to the past with wisdom and one young which looked to the future with idealism. There’s no doubt the turn of the millennium will pass in review under both perspectives.

One of the last books by the great science fiction writer, Isaac Asimov, was written along these lines. Asimov’s March of the Millennia (Walker, 1991) sought to recap the highlights of human history.

Since we live in an age which has extended both the past and future horizons, the efforts to sum up the past will be monumental, and the attempts to preview the future will be gigantic. In fact, they have already begun. Since 1980, Canadian futurist Don Toppin has been looking at the third millennium from the mountaintop of “Trends 2000”. Here is a 1994 article by Toppin entitled, “Shaping the Great Millennium”.

On Talk 2000 you will usually find several “Trends 2000” threads seeking to integrate a future vision with a historical consciousness.

Agenda 2000

The third pattern of year 2000 talk is “Agenda 2000.” It sees the year 2000 as a milestone date to work toward. It aims to tackle unfinished agendas through setting local, national and global goals. This image is a finish line, calling us to enter the race.

John Naisbitt feels the year 2000 compels us to examine ourselves and resolve our problems so we can meet the new millennium with a clean slate. Those problems we do not willingly confront, it seems, are being thrust upon us.

“Agenda 2000” programs usually have one or two horizons. One is an action plan for this decade, the other for the new century. The latter approach asks, “What will be the major, first-intensity issues facing the world as the new century opens?” The former says, “If we are serious about addressing them, how far can we reasonably expect to move along the path toward solutions in the intervening years before 2000?”

By the late ’80s, research showed that more than 2,000 groups existed with year 2000 goals. And that number was growing weekly, within government, business, education and religion.

“Agenda 2000” programs have been launched by many countries. The United Nations alone has many “Agenda 2000” programs or agencies working for education 2000, health 2000, transportation 2000, literacy 2000, food 2000, economics 2000, peace 2000, environment 2000, and indigenous peoples 2000.

Perhaps the most well-known “Agenda 2000” program is the Earth Summit Strategy. On June 13th, 1992, nearly 100 world leaders met around a single table in Rio de Janeiro for the largest face-to-face meeting of national leaders in the history of the world. The main binding agreement, signed by all 172 participating nations, including the United States, was called “Agenda 21”. This was a comprehensive global action plan to confront and overcome the most pressing problems facing our planet. Read the enclosed “Agenda 21 Summary” to get a feel for how they relate to the millennium milestone.

Many of the charter members of Talk 2000 are leaders of “Agenda 2000” groups. You will likely find one or two threads talking about various millennial goals or organizations, from the First Millennial Foundation to the National Millennium Foundation, from the AD 2000 Movement to World 2000.

Renewal 2000

Rather than view A.D. 2000 as a milestone, many have been talking about the year 2000 as a mirror, in order to see ourselves better. Convinced we have not arrived, this image calls for renewal, revival, renovation, restoration and renaissance in light of 2000. The image here is one of rebirth, and experiencing the new millennium through personal and social transformation.

Typical of this thread is a concern for the human condition. Robert Heilbroner’s An Inquiry into the Human Prospect (1974) or Italo Calvino’s Six Memos for the Next Millennium (Cambridge, 1988) are illustrative of this call for “Renewal 2000”. Also in Shall We Make the Year 2000?, (Sidgwick, 1985) Jacobus Beus explores decisive challenges to western civilization; and Voices on the Threshold of Tomorrow (Feuerstein, ed., Quest, 1993) offers more than 100 views of the new millennium from a metaphysical perspective.

Fearing the turn of millennium frenzy will leave us meaningless, adult educator John Ohliger has written The Millennium Survival Kit (Basic Choices, 1990), to explore the enigma of time and our relationship to it. His article, “The Millennium: Are You Ready For It?” reveals his concern for “Renewal 2000”.

While some see 2000 as a sign of the future, some realists see it only as a continuation of humankind’s hatred, greed and delusion. You will usually find some threads on Talk 2000 from this “Renewal 2000” perspective, which look at how the bimillennium calls for a mid-course correction.

Jubilee 2000

The fifth year 2000 thread from 1965 – 1995 has been “Jubilee 2000.” This paradigm sees 2000 as a global jubilee. Ancient Jewish law called for society to start all over again every 50 years through its Jubilee Year. Land was returned, debts were forgiven, prisoners were set free. Everyone got a fresh start, a new lease on life. A whole year like that was cause for celebration. Many see the year 2000 as having jubilee potential. As a once-in-a-lifetime experience from 1999-2001, it is seen possibly as the greatest commemoration in the history of civilization.

Since the late ’80s, popular culture has been thinking about the turn of the millennium in terms of Times Square 2000. Talk from this “Jubilee 2000” framework looks at the millennium from New Year’s Eve ’99 or 2000. Read advertising columnist Leslie Savan’s article, “The Biggest Party Ever!”, for a commercial “Jubilee 2000” perspective.

Rather than just theme the year 2000 from Times Square, people have also been talking about the year 2000 from the perspective of Bethlehem’s manger square. After all, A.D. 2000 represents the 2,000th anniversary of the birth of Christ.

The leading proponent of 2000 as a Holy Year has been Pope John Paul II. Since his inauguration in 1978, John Paul has talked repeatedly about how the “Great Jubilee of the Incarnation of Our Lord” beckons us to cross a threshold of hope. His most comprehensive statement on the Holy Year was released in the fall of 1994. The document is called Tertio Millennio Adveniente (Vatican Press).

What Columbus was to the quincentennial of 1992, Christ will be to the bimillennial of 2000. I wrote the first book-length treatment of Christ’s 2,000th anniversary in The Star of 2000 (Bimillennial Press, 1994). It explores how Christ’s birth some 2,000 years ago, has become a modern day, “Star of Bethlehem” for civilization. Tributes to the poor Man of Nazareth will fill the Holy Land and likely be reflected in gospel concerts, books, dramas and religious pilgrimages. Read the preface, “A Magnet Hung in Time” from The Star of 2000 to appreciate the impact that Christmas 2000 will have on society.

Akin to this vein, “Jubilee 2000” talk looks for parallels between the birth of the first and third millennium. Many people are universalizing the bimillennial of Jesus to ask present day questions like, “If the first millennium brought us ‘Peace on Earth,’ how can the third millennium bring us ‘Peace with the Earth’?” Some people with more evolutionary “Jubilee 2000” perspectives speak about a “Planetary Birth” at the dawn of the third millennium.


This article has attempted to give Talk 2000 readers some handles on how people have talked about the year 2000 for the past 30 years. These mega-threads are by no means fixed, and are quite fluid. For example, you could easily start with a “Threshold 2000” premise and conclude your post by calling for “Renewal 2000”.

To the degree you are aware of various ways of viewing the year 2000, to that degree you will be able to talk 2000 with others in the common square and build a public philosophy for the advent of the third millennium.


Jay Gary is the host of Talk 2000, and the author of The Star of 2000 (Bimillennial, 1994). In that book, he further develops the history of these five Talk 2000threads as the “Five AD 2000 Mega-Images” which have led us into a historic bimillennial era.

This article was written for the Talk 2000 Web Site in September, 1995.



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Let’s Talk 2000

From 1995 to 1999, I edited the leading turn of the millennium bulletin for civic leaders, academics and consultants called “Let’s Talk 2000.” Here are the monthly archives.
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An appreciation of the environment, culture, and history as global systems is redefining millennialism from a religious fringe obsession to an intriguing new interdisciplinary theme, claims James Gollin.
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The Biggest Party Ever!

You’re invited to the bash for the new millennium. Its fun, its a little frightening–and its starting now. Continue reading

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Resources on the Bimillennial

Talk 2000Resources on the Bimillennial
Since the mid-60s, more than 2,000 books on the year 2000 have been published. The majority are industry specific, and discuss national issues such as education, transportation or literacy by the year 2000. About 5 percent look at the year 2000 from an integrated social perspective. This bibliography falls under this later category. The books listed below should be available in your local library or bookstore.

2.1 What are the best introductory books on the year 2000?

2.2 What books should I read on 2000 for pleasure?

2.3 What books should I read if I’m active in Talk 2000?

2.4 What books can help me research millennialism & 2000?

2.5 What books can help me research global goals & 2000?

2.6 What books can help me learn about future studies?

2.7 What books can help me learn about public policy &2000?

2.8 What groups are developing agendas for the year 2000?

2.9 What groups offer further bimillennial resources? 

YEAR 2000?

If you have never thought about the year 2000, here are some recommended books. They assume no knowledge of the bimillennial, and will give you a sound grasp of the basics.

Megatrends 2000
John Naisbitt & Patricia Aburdene, Morrow, 1990
In a widely read trends books, Naisbitt & Aburdene include an upbeat piece on “the millennium as a metaphor for the future” in their introduction and in the conclusion to chapter 9.
ISBN: 0-688-07224-0.

The Millennium Book
Gail & Dan Collins, Doubleday, 1991
Take a fun look at the year 2000 and its festivities. Contains 26 top-ten lists of the last millennium, including the Top Tunes, Ten Worst Wars, or Twelve Greatest Women. Perfect for any Millennium’s Eve trivia buff who wants to get ready for “the biggest New Year’s Eve in a 1,000 years.” ISBN 0-385-41165-0.

The Star of 2000
Jay Gary, Bimillennial, 1994
A new star of Bethlehem has now appeared-the year 2000. This spiritual magnet is now drawing our civilization, which began with the birth of Jesus, to celebrate its 2,000th anniversary. Stories, inspiration and projections combine to share how this journey of hope will unfold from 1996 to 2001 to become the greatest celebration in the history of civilization. ISBN 0-9641388-0-8.


When you wish upon a star, your dreams come true.
–Jiminy Cricket


This is recreational reading on the year 2000 from various novels, future histories, or science fiction books. As Marshall McLuhan said, “Anyone who tries to make a distinction between education and entertainment doesn’t know the first thing about either.”

Looking Backwards: 2000-1887
Edward Bellamy, STMS, 1995, [1887]
Good Morning, It’s A.D. 2000! As people prepared to celebrate the turn of the century a 100 years ago, the most popular book of the day was about life in year 2000. Bellamy’s utopian novel sold more than 10 million copies. The story revolves around Mr. Julian West, a wealthy Bostonian man who was an insomniac. As fortune would have it, one day in May 1887, West is hypnotized to sleep only to wake up 113 years later, on September 10, 2000, to find an American utopia. Literary historians claim Looking Backwards had an impact on American society equal to classics such as Uncle Tom’s Cabin and Ben Hur. ISBN: 0-312-10591-6.

2001: A Space Odyssey
Arthur C. Clarke, New American Library, 1968
In the words of Life magazine, the book and MGM movie by Clarke and Stanley Kubrick “dazzles the eyes and gnaws the mind.” 2001 is the story of a black enigma found on the moon, a spacecraft sent to Jupiter to unravel the mystery, an intelligent computer gone insane, one man’s search for his intelligent equal among alien stars and the birth of a Star Child.

The Year 2000: An anthology
Harry Harrison, editor, Berkeley, 1970, 1972.
Thirteen distinguished science fiction writers share their vision of life in the year 2000. Considered brilliant, prophetic and frightening, they contribute to our understanding of where humanity is going, how and to what end. ISBN: 425-02117-095.

A Creed for the Third Millennium
Colleen McCullough, Harper & Row, 1985.
A best-selling novelist weaves a spell-binding tale of power, self-deceit and manipulation. Join Dr. Joshua Christian, during the bimillennial year of 2033, as he leads a demoralized American public out of “millennium neurosis” only to experience a surprise climax. ISBN 0-06-015301-6.

First Lady of the World
Robert Muller, World Happiness, 1991
A novel by a former UN official of how the first woman Secretary General brings a renaissance to world affairs and prepares the world to celebrate the year 2000. A tale of love, courage, eastern mysticism and self-sacrifice. ISBN: 1-880455-01-3.

Mega-Traumas: America at the Year 2000
Richard D. Lamm, Houghton, 1985
After the election of 2000, the new president calls in the cabinet appointees to help her write the State of the Union message. She learns that American is a nation in liquidation. Is this inevitable? In a more hopeful scenario, the author shows how the U.S. can avoid these projected disasters. ISBN: 0-39537-91-21.

The Third Millennium
Brian Stableford and David Langford, Knofp, 1985
If you lived in A.D. 3000, what would the history of the world look like since A.D. 2000? Here is a lively glimpse of the future through topics such as war and peace, environmental crises and space exploration. ISBN: O-394-74151-X.


The future ain’t what it used to be.
-Arthur C. Clarke


This is intermediate reading on the bimillennial. For regular participants in bit.listserv.2000ad-l, these books are indispensable.

Century’s End
Hillel Schwartz, Doubleday, 1990
Here is the definitive cultural history of the fin de siecle, from the 990s through the 1990s. Explains how the “century-end effect” will impact the ’90s, from the fear of decay and fantasies of renewal. Superb material on “The Legend of the Year 2000”–a storehouse of research. ISBN: 0-385-24379-0. (The paperback edition will be released in late ’95.)

William Johnston, Transaction, 1991
A study of the “cult of anniversaries” in Western Europe and United States today from a postmodern perspective. Covers the great calendar, the humanist tradition and the power of bimillennial consciousness. ISBN: 0-88738-375-0.

The Anniversary Compulsion
Peter Aykroyd, Dundurn, 1992
A classic study of how a mega-anniversary can be successfully conceptualized and staged, based on Canada’s experience with their centennial in 1967. Offers anniversary axioms for the unprecedented worldwide celebrations at the advent of the 21st century. Excellent reading for civic or corporate leaders planning bimillennial celebrations. ISBN: 1-5002-185-0.

Preparing for 2000
Anju Reejhsinghani, Millennium Institute, 1995
A very short impressionistic survey of national attitudes toward the turn of the millennium and preparation for celebration, including reports on the significance of the year 2000, the use of various calendars, the observation of anniversaries, and the significance of gift-giving.

Framework for the Preparation of the Year 2000
Robert Muller, Quinnipiac, 1994.
A proposal for how the United Nations community should prepare for the advent of the third millennium. Contains Muller’s “My Dream 2000” poem and excellent documentation of the early calls to celebrate the bimillennium going back to Earth Day ’77. ISBN: 1-885007-07-8.

Tertio Millennio Adveniente
Pope John Paul II, Vatican Press, 1994.
An apostolic letter to the Church on preparation for the jubilee of the year 2000. Includes theological reflections on the Incarnation, the tradition of Holy Years and the preparations for celebration of the Great Jubilee. This document is available through Pauline Books & Media, ISBN: 0-8198-7381-0 or via a Web site:

Pablo Neruda, [1974] trans. by Azul Editions, 1992
Neruda (1904-1973), the Nobel Prize poet from Chile, embraces the “three equal, commonly shared zeros” and weighs our history in the balance. 2000 has been called Neruda’s “missal of presentiments and his prayer book of survival” in the human struggle to achieve the longed-for peace of a new history. ISBN: 0-9632363-0-X.


Anyone bored these days is not paying attention.
-Bill Copeland


This is a specialized reading list on the year 2000 and its relationship to various millenarian or utopian ideas. There are hundreds of books each year written on this subject. Those listed here reflect different aspects of millennialism and its relationship to the year 2000.

The Millennium Survival Kit
John Ohliger, Basic Choices, Madison, WI, 1990
Offers tips to survive the pell-mell rush into the new millennium. A 100-page study kit with more than 350 footnotes to help adult educators reflect on existential time at the turn of the millennium. For ordering information, e-mail: johliger@facstaff.wisc.edu.

The Meaning of the Millennium
Robert Clouse, InterVarsity, 1977
A comparative study of the three classic theological views on the millennial reign of Christ: premillennial, amillennial and postmillennial.
ISBN: 0-87784-794-0.

Soothsayers of the Second Advent
William Alnor, Revell, 1989
A compelling expose by an evangelical investigative reporter of “doomsday-dating, pin-the-tail-on-the-Antichrist, and other non-biblical games that Christians play.” ISBN: 0-8007-5324-0.

Arguing the Apocalypse
Steven O’Leary, Oxford, 1994
Maps the millennial rhetoric of the 1840’s and 1980’s and probes the apparent human need to view history as symbolic drama-either comic or tragic. ISBN: 0-19-508045-9.

The Sense of an Ending
Frank Kermode, Oxford, 1966
A classic study of literature showing how writers impose their “fictions” upon the face of eternity to reflect the apocalyptic spirit. ISBN: 0-19-5000770-0.

The Millennial Project
Marshall Savage, Little-Brown, 1992, 1994
We live on a planet that cannot sustain the twin problem of overpopulation and environmental destruction. In order to survive, Savage proposes we must reach the stars by building up a space-based civilization “in eight easy steps.” Here is “millennialism” from a techno-space mentality. ISBN: 0-316-77163-5.

The Millennium Myth
Michael Grosso, Quest, 1995
From Joachim of Fiore to Adolf Hitler, from Lenin to Gaia, the twists and turns of the millennial myth is weaved. Grosso claims that in our day technology and alternative spirituality also shape the prophetic vision of the western world. ISBN: 0-8356-0711-9.

Millennialism: An International Bibliography
Ted Daniels. Garland Publishing, 1992.
This is the only book-length bibliographic treatment of the subject. It takes in more than 3,000 books and articles on the subject, most from the fields of sociology, history, anthropology, literature, and political science, and reviews material in most European languages.


The millennium affects people the way moonlight affects
werewolves, the way sirens affect dogs, the way that bizarre
black monolith affected the apes in ‘2001.’

–Peter Carlson


Starting in the early ’70s, the year 2000 became the mother of all target dates for global goals. Here is a list of books on this “agenda 2000” phenomena.

Reinventing the Future
Rushworth Kidder, MIT Press, 1989
What new century resolutions should humanity make as it enters the 21st century? Here is an “Agenda 2000” with 95 global goals in the areas of development, peace, civilization and ethics. ISBN: 0-262-11146-2.

Global 2000 Revisited
Gerald Barney, Millennium Institute, 1993
A lucid assessment of the critical needs facing our world in order to achieve a “sustainable future for Earth” for the year 2000 and beyond. Includes a call to cross the threshold into the new millennium, from 1999 to 2001 that would leave a legacy for future generations. ISBN: 0-937585-00-9.

Wild Hope
Tom Sine, Word, 1991
As we stand poised on the threshold of a new century, how should we deal with the crises facing the human community? Christian futurist Tom Sine offers a challenge to complacency and a call to creative living, in what Jimmy Carter calls “…an important book for all people of faith.” ISBN: 0-849931-31-2.

Our Globe and How to Reach It
David Barrett and Todd Johnson, New Hope, 1990.
Illuminates the race of the world Christian movement towards A.D. 2000 through starting-line statistics, finish-line goals and a 100-point global action plan. This is the eighth book in an AD 2000 series on global agendas. ISBN: 0-936625-92-9.



We are still tackling 20-year problems with five year plans,
staffed with two-year personnel,
working on one-year appropriations.
It’s simply not good enough.

–Harlan Cleveland


In the mid-60s, projections toward the year 2000 gave birth to the modern future study movement. Riding this wave were authors such as Bertrand de Jouvenel, Robert Jungk, Alvin Toffler and Herman Kahn. Here is a list of introductory books in this field.

The Study of the Future
Edward Cornish, World Future Society, 1977
A definitive introduction to the study of the future, its origins, its ideas and methods. Contains an excellent guide to future-oriented organizations, periodicals and books. ISBN: 0-930242-03-3.

What Futurists Believe
Joseph Coates and Jennifer Jarrett, eds., World Future Society, 1989.
An in-depth examination of the thoughts and beliefs of 17 futurists, including Peter Drucker, Daniel Bell, Richard Lamm, Kenneth Boulding and Dennis Meadows. ISBN: 0-912338-66-0.

Futurehype: the tyranny of prophecy
Max Dublin, Plume, 1992
On the eve of the next millennium, this book challenges the foolishness of futurology by taking a scalpel to all the the imagined utopias and counter-utopias, questioning their methodology and morals. ISBN: 0-452268-00-1.

Encyclopedia of the Future
George T. Kurian and Graham Molitor, eds., Macmillan, (forthcoming)



If we are to arrive at the year 2000 and view about us a
world worth living in and worth turning over to future generations,
we must conceive most of that world today and build it with every succeeding tomorrow.

–Glenn T. Seaborg


The Great Turning
Craig Schindler and Gary Lapid, Bear, 1989.
Offers global vision and practical tools to create a new era of human dignity and make the “Great Turning” of the millennium a true turning point in the way nations and communities manage conflicts. ISBN: 0-939680-51-3.

The American Hour
Os Guinness, Free Press, 1993
At the climax of the “American century” and on the eve of a “pax moderna,” this book examines the uneasy but necessary relationship of religion to public life and offers suggestions on how a common vision for the common good might be developed. ISBN: 0-02-913173-1.

On the Eve of the Millennium
Conor Cruise O’Brien, Free Press, 1995
Sub-titled, “the future of democracy in an age of unreason,” an Irish statesman looks at the apocalyptic threats which religion and nationalism bring to democracies founded on the Enlightenment. Includes a chapter which evaluates the British “Millennium Commission.”



Things fall apart: the centre cannot hold;
Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world…

–W.B. Yeat’s poem, “The Second Coming”


There are more than 100 major international organizations with goals for the year 2000. Some take the millennial milestone as a finish line, others as the starting gate. This is a short list of groups which aim to harness the emotional energy of the approaching millennium for positive actions by governments, non-profits and individuals. Each group listed has developed a coalition for widespread public action to forward a global agenda which pivots off the year 2000/2001.

AD 2000 & BEYOND MOVEMENT: “A Church for Every People by the Year 2000”
In light of the millennial milestone, the AD 2000 & Beyond Movement offers conferences, resources, and “track” networks for church leaders committed to development work among indigenous peoples. Since 1989, this network has spawned more than 100 national or regional AD 2000 consultations.
AD 2000 & Beyond Movement
Web Site: http://www.ad2000.org/

AGENDA 21: “The Earth Summit Strategy to Save Our Planet”
The Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro (UNCED) brought together nearly 40,000 people and 100 heads of state to draft a global action plan to confront and overcome the most pressing environmental and economic problems facing our planet. The main binding agreement, signed by all 172 participating nations, was called Agenda 21. The United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) is implementing the recommendations of the Agenda 21. The Commission of Sustainable Development (CSD) is monitoring how far Agenda 21 has been implemented.
UN Commission on Sustainable Development
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
P.O. Box 30552
Nairobi, KENYA
Web Site: http://www.undp.org/
E-mail: ipaunep@undp.org
Gopher: gopher://gopher.igc.apc.org/ [look under CSD in United Nations, under Econet]
Conference: There is also a “Citnet” conference on Econet run by the Citizens Network for Sustainable Development.

FIRST MILLENNIAL FOUNDATION: “Colonizing the Galaxy in Eight Easy Steps”
To leave planet Earth and colonize space is not just science fiction any more, but our human destiny. The First Millennial Foundation feels this task will occupy mankind for the next thousand years. They help volunteers work together on a pragmatic plan toward this end, which starts with a colony at sea by 2008. For information, contact:
First Millennial Foundation
P.O. Box 347
Rifle, CO 81650
(303) 625-3273
BBS: (303) 625-3273
Web Site: 
E-mail: mtsavage@pipeline.com

GOALS 2000: “Educate America Act”
In an effort to raise academic achievement by 2000, President Clinton signed into law the “Goals 2000: Educate America Act” on March 31, 1994. The U.S. Department of Education maintains a web site on this legislation.
Goals 2000
600 Independence Ave, Ste 4000
Washington, DC 20202-6100
(202) 401-0039
Web site:

MILLENNIUM INSTITUTE: “A Sustainable Future for the Earth”
The Millennium Institute grew out of the widely respected _Global 2000 Report to the President_. Through programs, publications and software they promote long-term integrated global thinking about economic and environmental issues to “build a sustainable future for the Earth.” In collaboration with other groups, the Institute is designing a series of events and social engagements to mark and celebrate the year 2000 as a milestone and transition to a new era.
The Millennium Institute
1117 North 19th Street, Ste 900
Arlington, VA 2209-1718
(703) 841-0048
Web site: http://www.igc.apc.org/millennium/

MILLENNIUM PROJECT: “Forecasting the future of the next century”
The Millennium Project has been commissioned by the United Nations University to help organize futures research on an international basis, such that the forecasts of the next 100 years would be continuously up-dated and disseminated through a variety of media for consideration in public policy, advanced training, public education, and systematic feedback.
The Millennium Project Feasibility Study
The United Nations University/American Council
4421 Garrison Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20016-2055
(202) 686-5179
Mailing List:
 millen-l at listserv@listserv.america.edu
Web Site: http://nko.mhpcc.edu/millennium/Millennium_Project.html
E-mail: jglenn@igc.apc.org

NATIONAL MILLENNIUM FOUNDATION: “Looking to the future with foresight”
The National Millennium Foundation, in Washington, D.C. traces its roots by to 1987. By 1989, its leaders had drafted model legislation to circulate to the Congress and White House. The Foundation’s purpose is to undergird the study of possible futures in commemorating the dawn of the third millennium, through celebrations in the year 2000 and beyond. Beyond legislative action, they serve as clearinghouse for events and ideas in the United States.
The National Millennium Foundation
1331 Pennsylvania Ave, NW #909
Washington, DC 20004-1703
(202) 342-1050

PROJECT GLOBAL 2000: “Planning for a new century”
In 1979, Global Education Associates called for world wide bimillennial celebrations of life in the year 2000 preceded by “unparalleled thinking, education and planning for a just and sustainable human world order.” As a world wide citizens movement of some twenty non-governmental and inter-governmental organization, Project Global 2000 has as its purpose is to raise the level of public demand for effective, democratically based policies on disarmament, economic development and environmental protection as the necessary framework for global security. For information on its Earth Covenant, collaborative research and policy development councils, write:
Project Global 2000
Global Education Associates
475 Riverside Drive, Suite 1848
New York, NY 10115
(212) 870-3290

WORLD 2000: “Shaping a New Global System”
World 2000 is an international planning dialogue to achieve sustainable world development by the middle of the 21st century. It works primarily through project teams and also track meetings at major assemblies, such as the World Future Society. It’s goal is to help the global system rise to a higher state of organization, through collective human choices, to achieve sustainable development. For more information, contact:
World 2000
203 Monroe Hall, GWU
George Washington University, DC, 20052
(202) 994-5975
Web Site: http://gwis2.circ.gwu.edu/~halal



So this is utopia, is it? Well, I beg your pardon; I thought it was Hell.
-Max Beerbohm




Here is a list of organizations that offer year 2000 resources, whether pamphlets, newsletters, speakers, books, or online resources.

2,000 DAYS BEFORE 2,000: “Do something each day you ordinarily won’t”
Adrienne Sioux Koopersmith has big plans for the next 2,000 days. Lose a pound a day-and date a different man each night. All of this to culminate at midnight Dec. 31, 1999, when the new Koopersmith will marry the most promising of her 2,000 dates, with Dick Clark at Time’s Square, presiding, of course. In a fit of “divine inspiration,” or perhaps insanity, Chicago artist and model, Adrienne Sioux Koopersmith, has decided to turn her personal challenge into a global one. She is urging everyone to resolve to accomplish one new thing you ordinarily wouldn’t every day from now till 2000. “It can be as simple as eliminating one cookie from your diet, or taking a new way home.” Or, she said, declare, “I’ll have this place cleaned up by the new millennium.” And then pick up one piece of clutter each day. That way, when the clock strikes midnight on December 31, 1999, you can say you’ve accomplished 2,000 things before 2000. For more information, send a SASE (with 55 cents postage affixed) to:
2000 Days Before 2000
1437 West Rosemont -1W
Chicago, IL 60660
(312) 743-5341

21STC MAGAZINE: “Advancing Knowledge in the New Century”
This online publication of Columbia University is dedicated to help people consider the meaning and achievements of research as we cross the millennial threshold. Interdisciplinary and cross-cultural, 21stC aims to take you into the ideas that research generates in virtually all disciplines.
21stC Magazine
Columbia University
116 Street Broadway
New York, NY 10027
Web site: http://www.21stc.org/

CALENDAR REFORM: “Improving the World Calendar”
Featuring “The World Calendar,” this page is dedicated to the study of calendar change. Its aims are to examine standing proposals; to collect information on past calendar reforms; and to explore puzzles and paradoxes which arise from time-keeping.
Web Site: http://ecuvax.cis.ecu.edu/~pymccart/calendar-reform.htm

CELEBRATION 2000: “Helping you Celebrate Christ’s 2,000th anniversary”
Founded in 1989, Celebration 2000 is a consulting group which supports creative projects whose aim is “to commemorate the 2,000th anniversary of the birth of Christ.” It provides bimillennial books, speakers and networking opportunities. For information, contact:
Celebration 2000
Web Site: http://www.christianfutures.com

CENTER FOR UTOPIAN STUDIES: “‘No where’ in Cyberspace”
This web site explores utopian literature, art, and theory, plus their dystopian counterparts. It includes commentary/criticism of works by Plato, Machiavelli, More, Bacon, Hobbes, Bellamy, Wells, etc. The site also features exploration of experimental communities worldwide.
Center for Utopian/Dystopian Studies
Web Site: 
Email: wooda@ouvaxa.cats.ohiou.edu

CLUB 2000: “Your membership in the new millennium”
Creates unique year 2000 products for the public and markets an annual membership package including travel, software products and festival 2000 information. Coffee shops, gift shops, or novelty shops can apply to host a “celebration center” of lifestyle products.
Club 2000
60 Fenton, Suite 8, Dept C.
Livermore, CA 94550
(408) 251-2000
Web Site: 
E-mail: gheiner@club2000.xo.com

MILLENNIUM COMMISSION: “Helping U.K. Celebrate the New Millennium”
This is the first of many “national commission” to come, which aspire to help their country celebrate the year 2000. The Millennium Commission receives a portion of every lottery dollar collected in the U.K. and awards up to a 50% grant to organizations undertaking public benefit millennium projects. For an introductory booklet on the U.K. commission, write:
The Millennium Commission
2 Little Smith Street
London SW1P 3DH, U.K.
Fax: (44) 71-340-2000

MILLENNIUM FOUNDATION OF CANADA: “Legacies for the future”
Encourages individuals, schools and community groups to create special projects and legacies to mark the year 2000 and leave “Wills for the Earth,” financial bequests to recognized environmental organizations.
The Millennium Foundation of Canada
2050 Nelson Street, Ste 1904
Vancouver, BC V6G 1N6 CANADA
(604) 298-6240
Web Site: http://www.millennia.org/

MILLENNIUM’S END: “A techo-thriller roleplaying game”
It’s 1999 and random death is a fact of life due to terrorist. Join an elite counter-terrorist group to head off nuclear, biological, and chemical blackmail. Millennium’s End is the best selling, fast-paced techno-thriller roleplaying game from Chameleon Eclectic. Realistic rules and a unique near-future setting make it the choice for action-adventure fans.
Phone: (800) 435-9930 or (703) 953-1658
Web Site:

MILLENNIUM FEVER: “SOS messages from millennial militia warriors”
Strange, apocalyptic postings originating from the future describe a world at war, caused by economic chaos, with scattered groups of heroic cyberwarriors leading a brave militia antiwar movement. Apparently, around the turn of the millennium (mid-1999), a machine or program called the CyberspaceTime Transpositor is being used by a renegade cyberwarrior named Gabriel to post messages across time. SOS messages, prophetic political commentary, audio files (including songs) and graphics have been received “from the future.” The Brotherhood of Cyberwarriors makes a desperate attempt to alter the course of history.
E-mail: maniacs@crawford.com
Web Site: http://www.crawford.com/media.maniacs/fever.html

MILLENNIUM MATTERS: “The new age will dawn in the new millennium.
This is an electronic mailing list on the New Age, originating from the Millennium Matters folder in America OnLine. It provides “information, documentation, and personal revelations about the coming millennium period.” It is a place to post “new age prophecy, share what astrology and divination have to say about the years leading to the millennium, and ponder various earth changes, weird weather, pyramids or alien contacts.”
Mailing List: mmlist-l at listserv@newciv.org
Newsgroup: alt.future.millennium
Web Site: http://www.newciv.org/millennium_matters/

MILLENNIUM PROPHECY REPORT: “It’s not the end of the world!”
The millennium is coming and things are going to get pretty weird, like oceanfront lots in Nebraska…flying saucers on swizzle sticks…out-of-body travel…peace on earth. Keep track of the best and worst of this millennial culture from the “Doomsday Man.” For subscription information to the Millennium Prophecy Report (MPR), contact:
Millennium Watch Institute
P.O. Box 34021
Philadelphia, PA 19101-4021
(215) 662-5677

NEW MILLENNIUM DESIGNS: “Millennial Artistic Casual Wear”
Markets a line of artistic casual clothing under the trademark of “World Countdown 2000.” Their T-shirts feature slogans such as “…where we’ve been, where we are, where we’re going…” or “Celebrating humanity’s march into a new century.”
New Millennium Designs
11 Darmouth St.
Nashua, NH 03060
(603) 880-0938

ROYAL GREENWICH OBSERVATORY: “Surveying time and the cosmos”
Founded by Charles II in 1675, R.G.O. is the most famous astronomical observatory in the world. They provide astrometric measures, time services, almanacs and for use by navigators and surveyors. With the development of astrophysics during this present century they now do investigative science. Their web site has an excellent section, with leaflets on time, supernovas, eclipses, leap years, 2000 AD, etc.
Royal Greenwich Observatory
Madingley Road
Cambridge, CB3 0EZ, United Kingdom
(+44) 1223 374000
Web site: http://www.ast.cam.ac.uk/RGO

SOCIETY FOR UTOPIAN STUDIES: “Utopias and Utopianism”
Founded in 1976, the Society for Utopian Studies is an international, interdisciplinary association devoted to the study of utopianism, or the idea of how a “perfect society” might be achieved. They publish the journal “Utopian Studies” and a newsletter on conferences and workshops. They also operate an open mailing list which discusses utopian politics, philosophy, psychology, the arts and urban planning.
Mailing List: utopia-l at listserv@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu
Email: utopia-l-request@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu

STRANGE DAYS: “Its 2k, history ends and begins right here, right now.”
It’s two days before 2000, and strange days are for real in Los Angeles, torn by violence and crime. The ultimate experience is to “jack in” by attaching a “squid” to your skull, and view uncut, recorded experiences of other people. When Lenny Nero (Ralph Fiennes), dealer in contraband tapes, and Mace (Angela Bassett) discover a friend who is snuffed out on tape, the search for their killer begins. The movie’s climax comes in the closing seconds of 2000, during the “mother of all parties” in downtown L.A. Released October 1995 by 20th Century Fox.
Web site: http://www.strangedays.com/
Web site: http://movieweb.com/movie/strangedays/

TORONTO/2000: “Shaping the Great Millennium”
Since 1980, various futurists in Toronto have been preparing their city for the twenty-first century, through monthly “Foresight Seminars” and annual commemorations such as UN Day or Earth Day. Founder of the Millennium Council of Canada, a network of year 2000 organizations.In addition, various “Prelude 2000” projects have been initiated, including a great millennium “Global Singalong” featuring international choirs of children is planned for noon, January 1, 2000. For sheet music on “Once in a Thousand Years,” “The Great Millennium Prayer” and “Morning Break,” send $10.00 to:
Toronto 2000
Suite 2000, 390 Bay Street
Toronto, Ontario, CANADA M5H 2Y2
(416) 214-2000

THIRD MILLENNIUM: “Advocates for the future”
Third Millennium is a national non-profit advocacy organization, started by young Americans who are concerned that U.S. fiscal policy is piling up massive debts ontop of Generation X. This “taxation without representation” will make it increasingly difficult to face the mounting social and environmental challenges that are anticipated in the next millennium. For information on annual membership, contact:
Third Millennium
P.O. Box 20866
New York, NY 10023
Web Site: http://www.thirdmil.org/

TRANSFORMATION 2000: “Creating the greatest show on earth”
Imagine making an epic Hollywood movie about how “the year 2000 was the turning point for humanity to become truly civilized.” And imagine how the movie itself creates a catalyst to bring everything together to help establish a sustainable future. This is the aim of Transformation 2000, which plans to premier its epic film on New Year’s Day with a “Live Aid” global telecast.
Transformation 2000
P.O. Box 1122
Del Mar, CA 92014
(619) 481-7751
Web site:

WAYSEE: “The World Association for Celebrating the Year 2000”
Founded in 1963 as the first millennial organization, WAYSEE 2000 seeks to organize town and city celebrations worldwide to mark the year 2000. Its now has 217 member municipalities in 29 countries. WAYSEE 2000 has encouraged the creation of numerous local celebration arenas, with trees which will be fully grown by the year 2000. In 1975 a “25 point plan” was launched to help cities make environmental improvements and celebrate their local history in anticipation of the year 2000. WAYSEE 2000 also encourages cities to create time capsules for future generations.
31 Clerkenwell Close
London, EC1R OAT England

WELCOME 2000 / BIENVENUE 2000: “Linking Cities through Satellite Link Ups”
A video and teleconference company offerings services to city festivals which desire to mark the arrival of the year 2000 with other cities across the 24-time zones through the use of satellite link ups and giant screen projections. Strong connections to Francophone and English speaking countries.
Year 2000 World Festivities Corporation
1 Place Ville-Marie, Suite 2821
Montreal, Quebec, H3B 4R4,Canada
(514) 862-2823

WORLD COUNCIL OF CHURCHES: “Preparing for an Ecumenical Jubilee”
The 324-member fellowship of churches, from virtually all Christian traditions, will open their celebrations of the year 2000 in 1998, in Zimbabwe, with an Eighth “Jubilee” Assembly, fifty years after its founding. Various proposals for meaningful commemoration of the bimillennial are now circulating, starting in 1999 with joint celebrations in Bethlehem by heads of Christian churches/communions to a common celebration of Easter in the year 2001 by Orthodox and Protestant churches. For more information, request document no. 12, “Ecumenical Observance of the Year 2000,” released in September 1994 by Dr. Konrad Raiser.
World Council of Churches
150 Route de Ferney
P.O. Box 2100
1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland
Web site: 

WORLD FUTURE SOCIETY: “Studying Alternative Futures”
The World Future Society was founded in 1966 as an association of people interested in the study of future. Today there are more than 30,000 members in 80 countries. Although talk about the year 2000 is old hat for most futurists, annual membership in the society lets you receive “The Futurist,” a bimonthly magazine, discounts on future-oriented books and invitations to conferences.
World Future Society
7910 Woodmont, Rm 450
Bethesda, MD 20814
(301) 656-8274

WRIGHT THINKING: “The World Millennium Snapshot”
A proposal to make January 1, 2000 the most photographed and most videographed moment in human history. The “World Millennium Snapshot” intends to create a massive mega-participatory project of people everywhere to create images at the moment, hour and day of the coming turn of the third millennium. Following the event, millions of images would be placed in a navigable holomorph database for future generations. For information on this and other “new millennium” proposals, contact:
Wright Thinking
14161 Riverside Drive, #3
Sherman Oaks, CA 91423
(818) 784-0325

YEAR 2000 COMPUTER CRISIS: “The computer clock is ticking…”
For many computer systems, the year 2000 will bring doomsday, given that most software programs were never designed to go past 1999. It is estimated that business will spend $100 billion worldwide in a programming effort to fix this faulty standard. The Year 2000 Information Center allows Internet users to get the latest facts and information on the Year 2000 computer crisis, and provides a forum for the discussion of possible solutions. It also hosts a continually updated clock showing the number of years, days, hours, minutes and seconds remaining until Jan. 1, 2000. For information contact:
Year 2000 Information Center
Brampton, Ont, Canada
(905) 792-8706
Web site: http://arganet.tenagra.com/year2000/
Mailing List: Year2000-L

The person who says, ‘It can’t be done,’ should not interfere with the person who is doing it.
–Chinese Proverb

This is the second in a series of three postings of Frequently Asked Questions for the Talk 2000 forum, which incorporates both the “bit.listserv.2000ad-l” newsgroup and the “2000ad-l@usc.edu” mailing list. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ON THE YEAR 2000: An introduction to the Talk 2000 Forum, Version 2.0 – 1 December 1995. Copyright 1995 by Jay E. Gary. All rights reserved.

Talk 2000 Forum
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Most recent revisionNovember 29, 1995
Web Weaver: Chris Coleman

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