Tag Archives: millennium

The Mile High Millennium

milehigh-sA month after the Columbine tragedy in Littleton, Colorado, I was invited to address 300 civic leaders in Denver on how they could mark the millennium. Here is the speech I gave, a good illustration of the kind of work I did with cities from 1998 to 2000 as a millennial consultant. Continue reading

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The Year 2000 FAQ

I wrote the Year 2000 FAQ back in 1995 to brief cities, communities and alliances on how the public was planning to mark the arrival of the Millennium. It is organized in four sections: Continue reading

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Trace the History of Talk 2000

Talk 2000Trace the History of Talk 2000
People have been talking about the year 2000 long before the Talk 2000 forum was launched. This essay introduces five key conversation threads about the millennial year, which have kept people talking about 2000 for the past 30 years.

  1. Threshold 2000
  2. Trends 2000
  3. Agenda 2000
  4. Renewal 2000
  5. Jubilee 2000

Threshold 2000

The first conversation thread about the year 2000 has been “Threshold 2000.” This thread takes A.D. 2000 as the millennium, the 1,000 year rule or reign of Christ. Whether literally or figuratively, it sees the year 2000 as a cataclysmic shift, a turning point, a tidal wave of global transformation that will sweep away an old civilization and usher in a golden age. The metaphor here is the edge of a cliff.

This is not a new idea. For more than 500 years, psychics, seers, pundits and prophets have been transfixed by the year 2000. No other year in all of human history, before or beyond, has gathered such incredible prophetic bets as A.D. 2000, talked up by such luminaries as Isaac Newton to Michel Nostradamus, Jeane Dixon to Ronald Reagan.

Some swear it will bring doomsday. Others claim it will usher in a utopian age. Either way, those who see 2000 as a threshold date look toward 2000 through millennial lenses.

The year 2000 attracts us for the same reason people have been attracted by millennialism, utopianism or progressivism. We believe that paradise is not behind us, but just ahead, perhaps within our reach, or that of our children. Despite the mess we find ourselves in, we believe in the possibility of transformation.

Threshold 2000 talk has been particularly attractive to bible teachers. Hal Lindsey’s The Late Great Planet Earth became the best-selling book of the ’70s. He convinced millions we were a terminal generation, not due to an environmental apocalypse, but because of a nuclear Armageddon. His latest book is called,Planet Earth–2000 A.D. (Western Front, 1994).

Not just bible prophecy, but “New Age” teachers now talk about the new millennium in catastrophic terms. A first class example of millennial talk is the MMList, an esoteric forum on the new millennium originating from America Online “Millennium Matters” folder. It provides documentation on supposed earth changes and personal revelations about the coming millennium period. In the article, “Requiem for the Twentieth Century,” Michael Grosso shares how the apocalyptic imagination pervades our historical mind and how metaphysical longings affect our future vision.

In an article entitled, “ Postdoomdayism“, James Gollin develops the idea that an appreciation of the environment, culture, and history is redefining millennialism from a religious fringe obsession to an intriguing new interdisciplinary focus on the world as global system.

The millennium myth of 2000, however, is full of tensions. Cultural historian Hillel Schwartz calls it a two-sided coin. Before you get to paradise, you must pass through Armageddon. You will usually find a couple of “Threshold 2000” threads on Talk 2000, documenting the influence of Christian or New Age millennialism on popular culture.

Trends 2000

The second thread of conversation from 1965 – 1995 about the new millennium is “Trends 2000.” Unlike “Threshold 2000”, “Trends 2000” highlights the continuity, achievement and growth of humankind. If “Threshold 2000” peers through millennial lenses, “Trends 2000” prefers to view things from mountaintop vistas to put the bimillennium in perspective.

One of the earliest “think-tanks” to talk “Trends 2000” was “The Commission on the Year 2000” of the mid-’60s, led by sociologist Daniel Bell. Packed with distinguished educators, government officials and researchers, this commission saw its role not so much in “making predictions, but to the more complicated and subtle art of defining alternatives,” as U.S. society moved toward the turn of the century. Get a unique view into “Trend 2000” talk by reading Daniel Bell’s 1967 article on the Commission entitled, “The Year 2000–The Trajectory of an Idea”.

With the year 2000 on our horizon, there is an irresistible urge to look backward and then forward, retrospect and prospect. These actions express our human instinct for putting things in order.

Lists now sum up the achievements of the past 2,000 years and chart possibilities for the new epoch. Standing on the summit of 2000, thousands of writers will wet their index fingers, raise them to the sky and see which way the wind is blowing.

In Roman mythology, Janus was the wind god who brought new beginnings. It is no accident that the first month of our year is named January. In most cases, Janus was pictured with two faces, one old which looked to the past with wisdom and one young which looked to the future with idealism. There’s no doubt the turn of the millennium will pass in review under both perspectives.

One of the last books by the great science fiction writer, Isaac Asimov, was written along these lines. Asimov’s March of the Millennia (Walker, 1991) sought to recap the highlights of human history.

Since we live in an age which has extended both the past and future horizons, the efforts to sum up the past will be monumental, and the attempts to preview the future will be gigantic. In fact, they have already begun. Since 1980, Canadian futurist Don Toppin has been looking at the third millennium from the mountaintop of “Trends 2000”. Here is a 1994 article by Toppin entitled, “Shaping the Great Millennium”.

On Talk 2000 you will usually find several “Trends 2000” threads seeking to integrate a future vision with a historical consciousness.

Agenda 2000

The third pattern of year 2000 talk is “Agenda 2000.” It sees the year 2000 as a milestone date to work toward. It aims to tackle unfinished agendas through setting local, national and global goals. This image is a finish line, calling us to enter the race.

John Naisbitt feels the year 2000 compels us to examine ourselves and resolve our problems so we can meet the new millennium with a clean slate. Those problems we do not willingly confront, it seems, are being thrust upon us.

“Agenda 2000” programs usually have one or two horizons. One is an action plan for this decade, the other for the new century. The latter approach asks, “What will be the major, first-intensity issues facing the world as the new century opens?” The former says, “If we are serious about addressing them, how far can we reasonably expect to move along the path toward solutions in the intervening years before 2000?”

By the late ’80s, research showed that more than 2,000 groups existed with year 2000 goals. And that number was growing weekly, within government, business, education and religion.

“Agenda 2000” programs have been launched by many countries. The United Nations alone has many “Agenda 2000” programs or agencies working for education 2000, health 2000, transportation 2000, literacy 2000, food 2000, economics 2000, peace 2000, environment 2000, and indigenous peoples 2000.

Perhaps the most well-known “Agenda 2000” program is the Earth Summit Strategy. On June 13th, 1992, nearly 100 world leaders met around a single table in Rio de Janeiro for the largest face-to-face meeting of national leaders in the history of the world. The main binding agreement, signed by all 172 participating nations, including the United States, was called “Agenda 21”. This was a comprehensive global action plan to confront and overcome the most pressing problems facing our planet. Read the enclosed “Agenda 21 Summary” to get a feel for how they relate to the millennium milestone.

Many of the charter members of Talk 2000 are leaders of “Agenda 2000” groups. You will likely find one or two threads talking about various millennial goals or organizations, from the First Millennial Foundation to the National Millennium Foundation, from the AD 2000 Movement to World 2000.

Renewal 2000

Rather than view A.D. 2000 as a milestone, many have been talking about the year 2000 as a mirror, in order to see ourselves better. Convinced we have not arrived, this image calls for renewal, revival, renovation, restoration and renaissance in light of 2000. The image here is one of rebirth, and experiencing the new millennium through personal and social transformation.

Typical of this thread is a concern for the human condition. Robert Heilbroner’s An Inquiry into the Human Prospect (1974) or Italo Calvino’s Six Memos for the Next Millennium (Cambridge, 1988) are illustrative of this call for “Renewal 2000”. Also in Shall We Make the Year 2000?, (Sidgwick, 1985) Jacobus Beus explores decisive challenges to western civilization; and Voices on the Threshold of Tomorrow (Feuerstein, ed., Quest, 1993) offers more than 100 views of the new millennium from a metaphysical perspective.

Fearing the turn of millennium frenzy will leave us meaningless, adult educator John Ohliger has written The Millennium Survival Kit (Basic Choices, 1990), to explore the enigma of time and our relationship to it. His article, “The Millennium: Are You Ready For It?” reveals his concern for “Renewal 2000”.

While some see 2000 as a sign of the future, some realists see it only as a continuation of humankind’s hatred, greed and delusion. You will usually find some threads on Talk 2000 from this “Renewal 2000” perspective, which look at how the bimillennium calls for a mid-course correction.

Jubilee 2000

The fifth year 2000 thread from 1965 – 1995 has been “Jubilee 2000.” This paradigm sees 2000 as a global jubilee. Ancient Jewish law called for society to start all over again every 50 years through its Jubilee Year. Land was returned, debts were forgiven, prisoners were set free. Everyone got a fresh start, a new lease on life. A whole year like that was cause for celebration. Many see the year 2000 as having jubilee potential. As a once-in-a-lifetime experience from 1999-2001, it is seen possibly as the greatest commemoration in the history of civilization.

Since the late ’80s, popular culture has been thinking about the turn of the millennium in terms of Times Square 2000. Talk from this “Jubilee 2000” framework looks at the millennium from New Year’s Eve ’99 or 2000. Read advertising columnist Leslie Savan’s article, “The Biggest Party Ever!”, for a commercial “Jubilee 2000” perspective.

Rather than just theme the year 2000 from Times Square, people have also been talking about the year 2000 from the perspective of Bethlehem’s manger square. After all, A.D. 2000 represents the 2,000th anniversary of the birth of Christ.

The leading proponent of 2000 as a Holy Year has been Pope John Paul II. Since his inauguration in 1978, John Paul has talked repeatedly about how the “Great Jubilee of the Incarnation of Our Lord” beckons us to cross a threshold of hope. His most comprehensive statement on the Holy Year was released in the fall of 1994. The document is called Tertio Millennio Adveniente (Vatican Press).

What Columbus was to the quincentennial of 1992, Christ will be to the bimillennial of 2000. I wrote the first book-length treatment of Christ’s 2,000th anniversary in The Star of 2000 (Bimillennial Press, 1994). It explores how Christ’s birth some 2,000 years ago, has become a modern day, “Star of Bethlehem” for civilization. Tributes to the poor Man of Nazareth will fill the Holy Land and likely be reflected in gospel concerts, books, dramas and religious pilgrimages. Read the preface, “A Magnet Hung in Time” from The Star of 2000 to appreciate the impact that Christmas 2000 will have on society.

Akin to this vein, “Jubilee 2000” talk looks for parallels between the birth of the first and third millennium. Many people are universalizing the bimillennial of Jesus to ask present day questions like, “If the first millennium brought us ‘Peace on Earth,’ how can the third millennium bring us ‘Peace with the Earth’?” Some people with more evolutionary “Jubilee 2000” perspectives speak about a “Planetary Birth” at the dawn of the third millennium.


This article has attempted to give Talk 2000 readers some handles on how people have talked about the year 2000 for the past 30 years. These mega-threads are by no means fixed, and are quite fluid. For example, you could easily start with a “Threshold 2000” premise and conclude your post by calling for “Renewal 2000”.

To the degree you are aware of various ways of viewing the year 2000, to that degree you will be able to talk 2000 with others in the common square and build a public philosophy for the advent of the third millennium.


Jay Gary is the host of Talk 2000, and the author of The Star of 2000 (Bimillennial, 1994). In that book, he further develops the history of these five Talk 2000threads as the “Five AD 2000 Mega-Images” which have led us into a historic bimillennial era.

This article was written for the Talk 2000 Web Site in September, 1995.



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Let’s Talk 2000

From 1995 to 1999, I edited the leading turn of the millennium bulletin for civic leaders, academics and consultants called “Let’s Talk 2000.” Here are the monthly archives.
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An appreciation of the environment, culture, and history as global systems is redefining millennialism from a religious fringe obsession to an intriguing new interdisciplinary theme, claims James Gollin.
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Introduction to the Year 2000

Talk 2000

Introduction to the Year 2000
Welcome to the year 2000 on the information super highway! This is where the past ends and the future begins! So pull over for a while and tune your dial to the Talk 2000 forum. The view of the horizon from cyberspace is great!

1.1 What is so unique about the year 2000?

1.2 Why are people talking about the year 2000?

1.3 Isn’t it just the year 2000 on the Gregorian calendar?

1.4 Why will we celebrate the year 2000?

1.5 Didn’t we miss 2000, since Christ was born before A.D. 1?

1.6 When does the new millennium begin?

1.7 What is the cultural history of the year 2000?

1.8 When did the first year 2000 group begin?

1.9 Who has called for celebrations in 2000?

1.10 What will happen in the year 2000?

1.11 What mega-events are announced to celebrate 2000?

1.12 What special events are announced to commemorate 2000?

It is Almost the Year Two Thousand
by Robert Frost

To start the world of old
We had one age of gold
Not labored out of mines,
And some say there are signs,
The second such has come,
The true Millennium,
The final golden glow
To end it. And if so
(and science ought to know)
We may well raise our heads
From weeding garden beds
And annotating books
To watch this end de luxe.

[from the Poetry of Robert Frost, edited by Edward Connery Lathem.
Copyright 1942 by Robert Frost.]


The year 2000 is clearly the most compelling symbol of the future in our lifetime. TIME magazine felt so in 1992. They released a special issue on the new millennium, hyping the year 2000 as if it were, well, the Second Advent.

The years 1999-2001 will certainly be unique. During this historic era we will celebrate the biggest New Year’s Eve in 500 years, commemorate the most memorable Christmas in 2,000 years and mark our entry in the third millennium.

Granted, the year 2000 will likely be no more or less extraordinary than any other calendar year. In view of geologic time the year 2000 is not the first millennium we have known. But in terms of human history, A.D. 2000 carries immense symbolism and psychological power. Since the world is now synchronized in view of C.E. 2000, this ordinary year will likely be experienced in an extraordinary way.

After all, the whole world has never celebrated together a centennial or millennial year, much less a bimillennium (a 2,000 year anniversary).

By the year 2020, there will be a whole new industry built on remembering the year 2000.
–Alvin Toffler


Like a magnet hung in time, the year 2000 is attracting us, just as it did previous generations. In 1892, long before cyberspace was filled with bimillennial ideas, a columnist for the London Spectator acknowledged the turn of the millennium would far out pull all other previous celebrations:

The fact that we are approaching the end of another century of our era, strongly affects the popular imagination. It is supposed that, in some undefined way, we must be better or worse merely because of this chronological fact. Were it the end, not of the nineteenth, but of the twentieth, we should be still more excited. Even now, the idea of that Annus Mirabilis, the Year of Grace 2000, begins to affect us. We feel that if we could live to witness its advent, we should witness an immense event. We should almost expect something to happen in the Cosmos, so that we might read the great date written on the skies. [quoted in Century’s End, p. 275.]

Corporate guru and forecaster, John Naisbitt, acknowledged this mysterious drawing power of the year 2000 in his best-selling book, Megatrends 2000:

Already we have fallen under its dominion. The year 2000 is operating like a powerful magnet on humanity, reaching down into the 1990’s and intensifying the decade. It is amplifying emotions, accelerating change, heightening awareness, and compelling us to reexamine ourselves, our values, and our institutions. [Megatrends 2000, p. 11.]

While the year 2000 has been absolutized, trivialized and commercialized, the emotional power of this year lies largely internalized. For some, the millennial year evokes excitement, for others anxieties. It would seem our biggest problem in this postmodern age is not empty shelves, but empty souls. We search for meaning and community. We talk about the year 2000 because it fills our soul with hope. Despite the anxieties of our age, we believe that tomorrow can be a better day for us and our children.


Ideas are more powerful than is generally understood.
Indeed, the world is ruled by little else.
–John Meynard Keynes


You have a valid point. Many countries have local or religious calendars which operate parallel to their civil calendar. In Tel Aviv the year 2000 will also be 5760/5761 on the Jewish calendar, in Mecca the year 2000 will be 1420/1421 on the Islamic calendar and in China it will the year 4698.

In this century, however, the Gregorian calendar has received universal acceptance the world over as a common calendar for communications, science, trade, travel and intergovernmental affairs.

Although technically the common calendar counts from the birth of Christ, the annotations C.E. following a date technically refer to the “Common Era,” rather than “Christian era.” The common civil calendar is a secular abstraction meant to function without reference to a single culture or starting point.

The year 2000, then, can be thought of as just plain 2000, or it can carry sacred and/or secular connotations. It can be A.D. 2000 or C.E. 2000, Anno Domini(the Year of Our Lord) or Common Era.

The trend in modern society has been to secularize, rather than jettison the Gregorian calendar, by replacing Christian anniversaries with cultural, ethnic or civic ones. Instead of holy days, we now have holidays. Instead of the Sabbath, we now have T.G.I.F.!


Little has changed in the last two thousand years, has it? 
–Max Lucado, in God Came Near


According to Hillel Schwartz, our experience of the turn of the century has been fashioned over the past 700 years into “a cooperative, ecumenical, increasing international venture.” Beyond just a century’s end, the year 2000 will also be a millennium’s end and on top of that–a bimillennium.
Here are three reasons why the year 2000 will be uniquely celebrated.

Milestone 2000:
The year 2000 will be significant as a milestone of human achievement. Some have compared this to climbing a mountain together. If we passed the “2,000 feet” sign, we would likely pause and reflect for a moment. We would look back at the trail we just came up, look out at the vista before us and look ahead at the path before us. In the same way, the year 2000 offers a unique opportunity to measure the road covered over the past 2,000, 1,000 or 100 years. The millennial milestone offers us a chance to take stock of how far we have come and reflect on where we must go to achieve a more human and just world.

Threshold 2000:
The year 2000 will be significant (actually 2001) because it marks our entry into the third millennium. For at least a season, the world may breath a bit easier, knowing it has survived the 20th century. Much like birthdays, wedding anniversaries or national holidays, the year 2000 is a threshold to pass across. If we were moving, we would probably spend some time at the old house, sorting through what is of value to take to the new home. In the same way, crossing over the threshold into the third millennium offers us an opportunity to repack our cultural and historical cargo before we inhabit our new psychological home.

Tribute 2000:
The year 2000 will be significant as a memorial to the 2,000th anniversary of the birth of Christ. For many, the coming of Christ into the world ranks as the most significant event in human history. If it were time to commemorate the 2,500th anniversary of Aristotle, or 100th birthday of Einstein, we would likely reflect on the impact that that philosophy or physics has had on our lives. Now at the year 2000, we are at a unique position to weigh the life and impact of Jesus of Nazareth. It will be appropriate for anyone, not just Christians to ask, “What is unique and universal about the life of Christ?” and “Why have the ethics of this poor man from Nazareth so deeply affected the cultures who followed him over the past twenty centuries?”

The question can start with why we should celebrate the year 2000, as a milestone, threshold or tribute, but it should soon graduate to a more important one: “How can these bimillennial commemorations truly leave a legacy for future civilization that will endure the test of time?”


I’ll be astounded if this planet is still going fifty years from now.
I don’t think we will reach 2000. It would be miraculous!

–Alistair Cooke


“Yeah, they meant to count from the birth of Christ, but they messed up!” Some people might discount the symbolic nature of the year 2000 since they assume, as most historians do, that Jesus was born at the latest by 4 B.C. They maintain the year 2000 is not the two thousandth birthday of Jesus Christ.

Technically, the purists are right. But let’s go a step further. It is not uncommon for major anniversaries to be celebrated on days other than their actual dates. Face it, we don’t even celebrate George Washington’s birthday on the *actual* anniversary, but rather on the *established* anniversary date. The same will hold true for Christ’ anniversary and the advent of the third millennium.


The year 2000 will open the floodgates of commemorative consciousness.
–William Johnston


Charles E. Lang of Greensboro, N.C., has gone to considerable length to document the fact that the third millennium begins on January 1, 2001. For sources, he cites the U.S. Naval Observatory, the Greenwich Observatory, Encyclopedia Britannica, Webster’s New Third International Dictionary, and the World Almanac. All affirm that the century ends on Dec. 31, 2000. According to Lang, “Our calendar started with the year one (1) and therefore every decade and century must start with a one, i.e. 1981, 1991, 2001.”

This little quirk in our calendar seems to have stemmed from the math of Dionysius Exiguus, the sixth century abbot of a Roman monastery. To settle the longstanding discussions on the proper day for Easter, he worked for months in Roman numerals to calculate a new basis for the church’s calendar. He arbitrarily named Anno Domini, the birth “Year of Our Lord,” as 1 A.D. rather than A.D. 0. Remember there was no zero in Roman numerals.

In the logic of today, many people wish the calendar makers “had been consistent,” and made Christ’s birthday year zero and started from there. Since they didn’t, we have to wait till 2001 before we mark two thousand years.

Despite this clear case of millennial math, millions will relish the magical moment on New Year’s 1999 when the cosmic odometer flips up the “big triple zero.” As Los Angeles Times columnist, Jack Smith, says, “Count me in, why poop a party just because its one year early!”


I thought the universe just rearranged itself to accommodate my picture of reality?


For centuries seers and sages, pundits and prophets have been transfixed by the year 2000. Even in modern times, trend watchers, global planners and futurists have hooked their sights to this guiding star. No other year in all of human history, before or beyond, has gathered such incredible prophetic bets as A.D. 2000.

It has been a powerful archetypal symbol for the “millennium,” the end of history and the beginning of a global civilization of peace and prosperity. Luminaries such as Newton to Nostradmus, Margaret Mead to Ronald Reagan, have all gone on record with their projections for the year 2000.

In the popular press, many have looked to the year 1000 for clues as to what 2000 might bring. Rather than festivity, the year 1000 called forth fear-or so we are led to believe. But the “legend of the year 1000” is just that-a legend. According to the last hundred years of scholarship, the “panic terror” across Europe in 999 never happened. The legend of the year 1000 was largely a creation by 18th century writers who wished to portray the medieval society as superstitious. Ironically, modern society, not medieval believers, seem to be infected with “millennial madness.” [Century’s End, p. 3-10].

One of the latest additions to the often muddled cultural history of the year 2000 is the best selling book, The Celestine Prophecy. Author James Redfield spins a millennial tale of a search for an ancient manuscript written in 600 B.C. that predicts a massive transformation in human society in the last decades of the twentieth century.

In religious terms, the cultural history of the year 2000 includes the notion of Anno Domini, as proposed in the mid-sixth century. In civic terms, the cultural history of the year 2000 includes the great ideas and great events since the birth of Christ, or of the last 100, 500, or 1,000 years. So in addition to the turn of the millennium being an anniversary of the Advent, it is also an anniversary of human aspirations.

Speaking of this cultural history of the bimillennium, Hillel Schwartz writes in Century’s End, “We have the obligation, and perhaps the privilege, to take advantage of the cultural richness and historical weight of Anno Domini 2000.”


On Western civilization: “I think it would be a good idea.” 
–Mahatma Gandhi


It all began with a fir tree! In 1963, within months of the Cuban missile crisis, a self-employed printer by the name of John Goodman (1928-1994) felt something other than missiles should act as markers of mankind’s future. Rather than focus on instant disaster, which could come at the touch of a button, Goodman felt we should cultivate symbols of “undisaster.”

To demonstrate his faith that the world would make it to the year 2000, he planted a fir tree on Blanchard Moor in Durham County. Then in a letter to the London Times, he proposed that we focus on worldwide celebrations for the year 2000. Subsequently, he wrote letters to world leaders such as Kennedy, Khrushchev, and Macmillan, and then founded the “The World Association for Celebrating Year 2000” in London, England.

Since that time, thousands have followed Goodman’s example of planting a “celebration” tree as a symbol of hope “towards a happier, greener world by the year 2000.” In 1993 WAYSEE 2000 celebrated their 30th Jubilee anniversary by placing a World Time Capsule under Hastings Pier, on the south coast of England. See “Subject 2.7” for more information on WAYSEE 2000.

Nothing worth doing is completed in our lifetime; therefore, we must be saved by hope. Nothing true or beautiful or good makes sense in any immediate context of history, therefore, we must be saved by faith. Nothing we do, however virtuous, can be accomplished alone; therefore, we are saved by love. 

–Reinhold Niebuhr (1892-1971)


Early calls for celebrating the year 2000 began to appear in the mid ’70s. Here are reflections on two calls, one civic, the other religious, which have generated their own respective momentum.

Dr. Robert Muller
In 1991, the former assistant Secretary General of the United Nations said:

“This idea of the bimillennial occurred to me on the occasion of the American Bicentennial, as I was in charge of the relations for the United Nations with the city of Philadelphia. Before 1976, I made several trips there to help plan the ceremonies.

“Once out of curiosity, I asked some prominent citizens of Philadelphia of the Council of World Affairs, when did you begin to plan the Bicentennial? They said, ‘Immediately after World War II!’ I said, ‘My God! You thought of this so many years ahead of time. This is fantastic.’ That never left my mind, and I thought that the United Nations should plan celebrations for the year 2000 well ahead of time.

“I have observed during my lifetime that it is difficult to hold together any human group for long if there is not a vision, an ideal, an objective, a dream. To bind the human family together, to foster its further ascent, to prevent it from losing ground and falling into the abyss of despair, we must have a constant vision, a dream for the human family. We will not swim forever in the present sea of complexity if we are not shown a shore…

“This is why, on the occasion of Earth Day 1977, I proposed that humanity should hold in the year 2000 a world-wide Bimillennium Celebration of Life preceded by unparalleled thinking, perception, inspiration, elevation, planning and love for the achievement of a peaceful, happy and godly human society on earth. Except for a few people, the immediate reaction to this proposal was nil. The year 2000 was still to far away.

Pope John Paul II
On October 16th, a replacement, Cardinal Karol Wojtyla of Poland, was elected as the first non-Italian pope since 1522. As he opened his inaugural address the following day, Pope John Paul II acknowledged his sovereign placement in the chair of St. Peter in Rome and declared that the year 2000 ‘will be the year of a great Jubilee.’

He spoke of how the year 2000, in itself, would surely reawaken in people their special awareness of how God dwelt among humanity through Jesus Christ. And he called for the remaining years of the second millennium to be a new advent season for the church and the world at large.

As the 1980s began, many watched with amazement as this new pope, with his magnetic personality, sought to lift the hopes and dreams of millions through his world travels. Yet few observers took the year 2000 call seriously. But quietly some within the church began to pray that this “new advent” in light of the new millennium would bear fruit.

Since that time, the Pope’s thoughts and addresses have continued to orbit with special intensity around the year 2000. In a November 1994 letter announcing plans for the Jubilee in 2000, the Pope said, “preparing for the year 2000 has become as it were a hermeneutical key of my pontificate.” It would appear to the faithful, that despite rumors of his health, here is a man, who like Moses of old, is determined to “cross the threshold of hope” and lead the church into the third millennium.

Someday, after we have mastered the winds, the waves, the tides and gravity, we shall harness for God the energies of love. Then for the second time in the history of the world, man will have discovered fire. 

–Teilhard de Chardin

Subject: 1.10 WHAT WILL HAPPEN IN THE YEAR 2000?

Here is a civic perspective by a former assistant Secretary General to the United Nations.

I dream
That on 1 January 2000
The whole world will stand still
In prayer, awe and gratitude
For our beautiful, heavenly Earth
And for the miracle of human life.

I dream
That young and old, rich and poor,
Black and white,
Peoples from North and South,
From East and West,
From all beliefs and cultures
Will join their hands, minds and hearts
In an unprecedented, universal
Bimillennium Celebration of Life.

I dream
That the year 2000
Will be declared World Year of Thanksgiving
by the United Nations.

I dream
That during the year 2000
Innumerable celebrations and events
Will take place all over the globe
To gauge the long road covered by humanity
To study our mistakes
And to plan the feats
Still to be accomplished
For the full flowering of the human race
In peace, justice and happiness.

I dream
That the few remaining years
To the Bimillennium
Be devoted by all humans, nations and institutions
To unparalleled thinking, action,
Inspiration, elevation,
Determination and love
To solve our remaining problems
And to achieve
A peaceful, united human family on Earth.

I dream
That the third millennium
Will be declared
And made
Humanity’s First Millennium of Peace.

-Robert Muller

“My Dream 2000” was written in the early ’80s by Dr. Robert Muller, Chancellor of the University for Peace and former assistant Secretary-General of the United Nations. To obtain a catalogue of Dr. Muller’s writings, write: WHC, P.O. Box 1153, Anacortes, WA, 98221.


For the past five, ten, fifteen years, hundreds of groups have focused on year 2000. In thought and action they have been preparing to mark our entry into the third millennium. From 1999 to 2001, however, numerous global events will specifically celebrate the year 2000, some of which are already announced. Many other mega-events are in the planning stages, and will be listed here in future versions of this FAQ. If you would like to nominate a congress or mega-celebration to be listed here, e-mail the information to:

HOLY LAND 2000(r)
A total of 4 million visitors are expected to stream into Palestine and Israel during the year 2000, to commemorate the 2,000th anniversary of the birth of Christ. Special events are being hosted in Bethlehem, Nazareth and Jerusalem from 1999 to 2001. Contact your nearest Palestinian or Israeli Government Tourist Office for details or contact:
Holy Land 2000
P.O. Box 1428
East Jerusalem
Fax: 011-972-2-894-730
Email: mecceto@cc.huji.ac.il

December 24, 1999
From Christmas 1999 to 2000, the Vatican expects more than 20 million tourists to visit the various basilicas of Rome in order to celebrate the advent of the third millennium and the Great Jubilee of the Incarnation of Christ as declared by Pope John Paul II. For more information, contact your nearest Italian Government Travel Office for information on Rome in 2000, or write:
Great Jubilee 2000
Plazza della Citta Leonina, 9
00193 Roma, ITALY
Fax: 39-6-698-81227

Rome Tourist Board
Via Parigi, 11
Rome, Italy
Telephone: 06-4881.851
Fax: 39-6-4819.316

Some 15 million people are expected to celebrate time and space at the $700 million National Millennium Exhibition at historic, Maritime Greenwich just outside London. In addition, festivities are planned in London on the Thames, as the world’s largest ferris wheel will be constructed in time to celebrate the arrival of the year 2000.
Web site: http://greenwich2000.com/

December 31, 1999
More than 1 million people are expected to join Dick Clark in New York for the New Year’s Eve 1999 Celebration in Times Square. Up to 250 million via TV are projected to watch the ball drop and to kick-off the year 2000. A similar annual celebration is planned for New Millennium’s Eve on December 31, 2000. For more information, contact:
Times Square/Special Events
1560 Broadway, Ste. 800
New York, NY 10036
(212) 768-1560
Web site: http://www.mediabridge.com/nyc/bids/tsbid/index.html

April 22, 2000
More than 300 million people in 150 nations are expected to participate in the largest Earth Day ever in the year 2000. It will also be the 30th anniversary of Earth Day. For more information contact,
Earth Day Network
P.O. Box 9827
San Diego CA 92169
(619) 496-3361
Web site: http://www.cfe.cornell.edu/

June 10, 2000
In honor of the 2,000th anniversary of the birth of Christ, more than 30 million people will participate in a global “March for Jesus” festival. People in more than 2,000 cities are expected to participate in this procession of prayer and worship. Annual countdown marches towards 2000 are held each year on Pentecost weekend in anticipation of the bimillennial.
March for Jesus
P.O. Box 3216
Austin, TX 78764
(512) 416-0066

EXPO 2000
June 1-October 31, 2000
More than 40 million people are expected to visit the Expo 2000 exposition grounds in Hannover, Germany. The millennial world’s fair is expected to vigorously explore the state of the world through the theme “Mankind, Nature and Technology.” For more information contact your nearest German Tourist Bureau, or write:
Expo 2000 Hannover
D-30510 Hannover GERMANY
FAX 49-(511) 84 04-100

September 16- October 1, 2000
More than five million people will witness 10,000 athletes from 190 nations compete in the Games of the XXVIIth Olympiad held in Sydney, Australia. For more information contact your nearest Australian Tourist Commission, or write:
Games of the XXVIIth Olympiad
GPO 2000
Sydney, NSW 2001 AUSTRALIA
61-(2) 931-2000
Web site: 


More so than usual, the years 1999 – 2001 are becoming banner years for special events, including one-of-a-kind conventions, congresses, and meetings. In addition, many annual or periodic events are preparing for the turn of the millennium. See Chase’s Annual Events in your library for a full list of periodic annual events.

January 6, 1999
To open the bimillennial era, a 5-month epic pilgrimage of peace is scheduled to retrace on horses and camels the original journey of the Magi through the Middle East. Festivals will be held in cities along the journey route, and culminate with a 4-day cultural festival in Bethlehem for 20,000 participants. The Journey of the Magi is expected to kick-off a 36-month “Holy Land 2000(tm)” exposition in Israel.
The Magi Project
P.O. Box 1037
Pinecrest, CA 95634
Fax: (209) 965-4575

I HUMAN 2000

A global millennium project using sculpture, enriched with live performance art. It will reflect upon the achievements and failings of the past–create a monumental artistic expression to commemorate our common future.
i human 2000
11241-78 Avenue
Edmonton, Alberta T6G 0M8, Canada
(403) 435-7646
Fax: (403) 433-4755
Email: 104252.507@compuserve.com


December 27-31, 1999
Millennium Celebrations(tm) is licensing corporations millennial logos, facilitating partnerships, and marketing opportunities. For the turn of the century, this commerical advertising network promises a simultaneous five-day orchestrated global gala of unprecedented proportions, involving sports, culture and music. This attempt to “give the millennium to the consumer” has already attracted some notable ommercial sponsors, including a voice communications giant to a worldwide resort chain.
Millennium Celebrations
1 Tower Lane, Ste 1700
Oakbrook Terrace, IL 60181
Fax: (708) 654-2308
Web site: http://www.2000celebration.com/

December 31, 1999
Billed as “The Official Celebration of the Year 2000(tm),” the Billennium(r) is planned as a multi-year extravangza marking the accomplishments of the past 2,000 years. Culminating on New Year’s Eve 1999, the Billennium Celebration aims to generate brand loyalty among various international markets for exclusive events and products.
The Mitten Group, Inc.
1335 W. Altgeld St.
Chicago, IL 60614
Fax: (312) 327-1999
Web Site: 

December 31, 1999
As the year 2000 is rung in, a chain of “beacon signal lights” will be lit over one million cities to salute the start of the new millennium. A 24-hour global festival and telethon intends to raise $1 billion for the future of children and the environment around the world.
Beacon Millennium
21 Coverdale, Carlton Colville,
Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 8TD, England

December 31, 1999
Guests will embark from New York on the Queen Elizabeth II for a 10-day “Symposium at Sea” and arrive at the Great Pyramid of Cheops, Egypt for a World Millennium Charity Ball, December 31, 1999. In addition, celebrations will be held at 23 select locations around the world, including the Great Wall of China, the Taj Mahal, the Acropolis and the Eiffel Tower. Each of these “celebrations of civilization” will be linked via satellite to create a “round-the-globe,” “round-the-clock” welcome to the year 2000. For information on the annual “Ten Most Inspiring” list, the Millennium Scholarship program, or the World Millennium Charity Ball in 1999, contact:
The Millennium Society
21 S. Wirt Street
Leesburg, VA 22075
(202) 332-1999
Web Site: http://www.alaskanet.com/party1999

ODYSSEY 2000(r)
January 1, 2000–January 1, 2001
Odyssey 2000(r) is a year-long “around-the-world” cycling trek through 54 countries on 6 continents. Departing from Los Angeles on January 1, 2000, some 250 cyclists will set out on a 366 trip to prove “that ordinary people can still do extraordinary things” at the dawn of the third millennium.
Tim Kneeland and Associates, Inc.
200 Lake Washington Blvd., Ste 101
Seattle, WA 98122-8540
Fax: 1-206-322-4509
Web Site: http://www.kneeland.com/timtka/

February 29, 2000
The millennial year will be a leap year, adding an additional day to the month of February. While normally occuring every four years, century years (like 1900 and 2000) are only considered leap years if they are evenly divisible by 400. Therefore, 1800 and 1900 were not leap years, but the year 2000 will be. The year 2001 is the designated inauguration date for numerous proposals calling for calendrical reform, or improvement. For information on time, calendars, and clocks, check these web sites:
Universal Calendar: http://www.ncook.k12.il.us/cgi-bin/calendar
Time Information: http://jdb.psu.edu/time.html
Master Clock: http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/time.html

August 2-4, 2000
United Societies in Space is a citizen initiative devoted to the establishment of a meta-nation in space where human society can live and work in the new millennium. For that purpose, a Constitutional Convention of 80,000 is planned in Denver’s Mile High Stadium in August 2000 to form a space governance entity which can legally pave the way for massive private investment on the order of 10 trillion dollars a year over the next century.
United Societies in Space
6841 S. Yosemite, #3-C
Englewood, CO 80112
Fax: 1-303-721-1182
Web Site: http://www.tagonline.com/Ads/USIS/

This is the first in a series of three postings of Frequently Asked Questions for the Talk 2000 forum, which incorporates both the “bit.listserv.2000ad-l” newsgroup and the “2000ad-l@usc.edu” mailing list. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ON THE YEAR 2000: An introduction to the Talk 2000 Forum, Version 2.0 – 1 December 1995. Copyright 1995 by Jay E. Gary. All rights reserved.

Talk 2000 Forum
Submissions: 2000ad-l@usc.edu
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Download FAQ: FAQ

Most recent revisionNovember 29, 1995
Web Weaver: Chris Coleman

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The Talk 2000 Forum Tutorial

Talk 2000Participation in the Talk 2000 Forum
One way to describe the Talk 2000 forum would be as a new millennium “learning community” to use a buzzword by Peter M. Senge. His book, The Fifth Discipline, describes his ideal of organizations working in community to encourage team learning, build shared vision, uncover mental maps, encourage personal mastery and solve common problems through systems thinking. This section was designed to help you navigate your way through the often unmarked terrain of a “new” newsgroup or mailing list.

3.1 Who reads the Talk 2000 forum?

3.2 What special terms does the forum use?

3.3 What is the charter of Talk 2000?

3.4 What topics does Talk 2000 discuss?

3.5 Why is the newsgroup named bit.listserv.2000ad-l?

3.6 How do I subscribe to bit.listserv.2000ad-l or 2000ad-l?

3.7 What if my 2000ad-l mail volume becomes to much?

3.8 Are articles posted to Talk 2000 copyrighted?

3.9 How would I quote the Talk 2000 forum in a research paper?

3.10 What is the moderation policy?

3.11 How do I submit a post to Talk 2000?

3.12 How do I keyword my article?

3.13 Where is the Talk 2000 web site?

3.14 How do I submit suggestions to revise this FAQ?

3.15 How can I obtain the latest FAQ version?


Subject: 3.1 WHO READS THE TALK 2000 FORUM?

Many people of outstanding backgrounds take the time to read the Talk 2000 forum and share their perspectives. We have students, trivia buffs, grandparents, futurists, historians, adult educators, community organizers, festival planners, people from the arts, special event professionals, writers, corporate leaders, church leaders and civic leaders. Our readership contains just about anybody who would like to help society meaningfully commemorate the advent of the third millennium.

Bit.listserv.2000ad-l and 2000ad-l is a place to exchange ideas, announce events, post questions and carry on discussions about the various millennial celebrations from 1999 to 2001 and their legacy to civilization. Whatever your background, you are welcome to join this forum to learn and to share.



All my life I felt as if I have been exploring a shore and looking at a few pretty shells
here and there, while the whole ocean of truth lay undiscovered before me.

–Isaac Newton (on his deathbed)


In alphabetical order, here are special terms used in bit.listserv.2000ad-l to express various facets of the culture of the year 2000.

A.D.–abbreviation for Anno Domini (Latin), “the Year of Our Lord;” in reference to the count of years measured from the birth of Christ, arbitrarily fixed as A.D. 1. Dating by the Annus Domini system was first proposed in 525 and adopted in A.D. 644.
B.C.–abbreviation for “Before Christ,” as in 44 B.C. The notation of counting backwards from the birth of Christ was first proposed by Jacques Bossuet in 1681.
Bimillennial–an anniversary or celebration of an event that occurred 2,000 years earlier, such as the 2,000th anniversary of the birth of Augustus, Virgil or Christ.
Bimillennium–a 2,000-year period or celebrations relating to that epoch of history.
C.E.–abbreviation for Common Era. A secular reference used in place of A.D., meant to function without reference to the Christian Era or the birth of Christ. Used to precede references to specific years, such as C.E. 1984. B.C.E. means “Before the Common Era,” as in 44 B.C.E. The common civil calendar was universally adopted in this century.
Fin de siecleFrench for the “end of a century” climate or mood characterized by fears of decay and fantasies of renewal (the first “e” in siecle should carry a left-leaning accent).
Jubilee–the celebration of special anniversaries, or occasions such as the 50th (golden jubilee). In Hebrew scripture it was a year of celebration and forgiveness of debts to be observed once every 50 years. In Roman Catholic tradition, is a “Holy Year” every 25 years, connected with public pilgrimage and penance.
Mega-anniversary–a great anniversary of significant magnitude, such as a centennial, quincentennial, millennial, bimillennial or trimillennial of a notable event, such as the birth of a founder of a religion, nation or civilization.
Millennial–this is an adjective, not a noun-referring to an anniversary or celebration of an event that occurred 1,000 years earlier, such as the millennial of the city of Dublin in 1988.
Millennium–1) a collection of 1,000 [years], 2) the 1,000 year reign of Christ on earth, 3) a period of great peace and prosperity, or 3) short hand for the “turn of the millennium.”
Third millennium–the coming period of history, A.D. 2001-3000, which technically begins January 1, 2001, signifying our entry into the third millennium C.E. or A.D.



Talk 2000 is a forum for discussion of all aspects of the year 2000, covering its folklore, festivities and future. Through discussion, participants strive to build a consensus on a public philosophy of the advent of the third millennium, that might undergird the efforts of society to celebrate the year 2000 in thought as well as action.

Substantial issues dealing with both the religious and civic nature of the bimillennial are discussed without engaging in “culture-war” rhetoric. It is assumed that people of all faiths and world views have a right to participate in shaping our entry into the third millennium. This right is claimed by principled persuasion, not by the rhetoric of protest, pronouncements, proselytism or posturing. Participants are asked to make their case using the substance and style of language that is comprehensible in the public square.

Some participants of Talk 2000 might consider themselves traditionalists, others freethinkers. Some may focus on the commemoration of the year 2000, others the counter-commemoration. To some, the Great Calendar represents continuity, to others discontinuity. Some think of 2000 and ask “What is right with life?”, others ask, “What is wrong with society?” The aim of Talk 2000 is to attract and keep both kinds of people. Hopefully, whether idealists or realists, everyone will learn something from each other.

While the participants of Talk 2000 may share contrasting world views, they recognize the benefit to society to develop a collective sense of perspective and direction as we prepare to celebrate the bimillennium and enter the third millennium. For it is through dialogue that a community accesses a larger “pool of common meaning” which cannot be accessed individually.



In necessary things, unity;
in doubtful things, liberty;
in all things, charity.

-Philip Melanchthon, 1497-1560


Topics include, but are not limited to:
—-Scenarios of the year 2000, as proposed by Isaac Newton, Michel Nostradamus, Edward Bellamy, Arthur C. Clarke, Daniel Bell, Hal Lindsey, Pablo Neruda, Edward Cornish, Pope John Paul II, Margaret Mead, etc.

—-The influence of millennialism on the culture of advertisers, peace-makers, cosmic party planners, cyberpunks, prophets, visionaries, doomsayers, conspiracy hunters, survivalists, world-savers and global evangelists.

—-The concepts from bimillennial books such as Megatrends 2000Century’s EndThe Millennium BookThe Anniversary AttractionCelebrations—the Cult of AnniversariesReinventing the FutureOur Globe and How to Reach ItGlobal 2000 RevisitedThe Star of 2000Framework for Preparation for the Year 2000Tertio Millennio Adveniente, etc.

—-The discussion of novels on the advent of the third millennium, such as Colleen McCullough’s Creed for the Third Millennium, Robert Muller’s First Lady of the World, Kurt Vonnegut’s Hocus Pocus or the many science fiction tomes on the year 2000.

—-Discussion of year 2000 and millennial coverage in major news media.

—-The lessons from previous mega-anniversaries such as the Canadian Centennial of ’67, the American Bicentennial in ’76, the French Bicentennial of ’89, the Columbian Quincentennial in ’92, the UN 50th Jubilee in ’95, etc.

—-The origin and use and reformation of the Gregorian calendar, including its religious and civic cultures, cosmologies and chronologies.

—-The cultural history of the year 2000, including the great ideas, great people or great achievements since the birth of Christ, in this past millennium or in this century-which are worthy of bimillennial tributes.

—-Proposals for congresses, spectaculars, performances or reunions falling in the years 1999 to 2001 which aim to commemorate New Year’s Eve 1999, New Year’s Day 2000, Rome 2000, Olympics 2000, Earth Day 2000, Expo 2000, United Nations 2000, Christmas 2000, New Millennium’s Eve 2000 and New Millennium’s Day 2001.

—-Discussion of various year 2000 organizations, such as the AD2000 Movement, The First Millennial Foundation, The Magi Foundation, The Millennium Society, The Millennium Institute, Project Global 2000, Toronto 2000, WAYSEE 2000, World 2000, etc.

—-Requests for research help with academic papers on the year 2000 in various social science disciplines, such as: “The Role of Celebration in Society,” “The Five A.D. 2000 Mega-Images,” “The Age of Anniversaries,” “The History of Bimillennial Consciousness, 1965-1995,” etc.

—-Reflection on the proposals, plans, strategies and visions that seek to give meaning to the start of the third millennium.



New opinions are always suspected, and usually opposed, without any other reason
but because they are not already common knowledge.

–John Locke


Each newsgroup name, in this case “bit.listserv.2000ad-l”, is comprised of different level hierarchies. The general level hierarchy is “bit.”, the second-level hierarchy is “listserv” and the third level is “2000ad-l”.

Newsgroups under the “bit.listserv” hierarchy all originate as electronic mailing lists, and are “gated” or mirrored as newsgroups by Netnews to the Internet. The “-l” indicates that this a gated mailing list.

In bit.listserv.2000ad-l, we are not simply interested in throwing a good New Year’s Eve party. We are talking about the future impact of a millennial movement that has crossed all boundaries, whether political or social in the past 20 years.

The “2000ad” label indicates we are looking at the phenomena of expectations and preparation brought on by the year 2000, against the backdrop of its cultural history, in light of its commemorative possibilities and in view of its contribution to future civilization at the dawn of the third millennium.

We strive to understand the turn of the millennium from the perspective of millenarian studies, with its rich religious and secular symbolism. Webster defines “millennium” as the 1,000 year reign of Christ on earth, or a period of great peace and prosperity. Today we also use the term “millennial” to refer to a 1,000th anniversary or its celebration, such as the millennial of the city of Dublin in 1988.

In addition to millenarian studies, the “2000ad” indicates we consciously draw from the field of future studies. As a professional endeavor, the field of future studies dates back some 60 years. By the mid-60s various future-oriented research groups such as the Hudson Institute or associations such as the World Future Society emerged. The focus of the year 2000 was a big factor in the development of modern future studies.

Yes, the extension “ad” stands for “Anno Domini.” It is not added as some cryptic confession of faith, but as a begruding concession to the machine language of Usenet. News administrators frown on numeric name components, due to the fact that their software mistakes an ending numeric character for the number of current articles in the newsgroup. While the extension “ce” could have been used to denote “Common Era,” the original proponents felt that the more familiar A.D. annotation would make more sense to people reading down a list of newsgroup names.



“The Ancient Mariner” would not have taken so well if it had been called “The Old Sailor.”
–Samuel Butler


If you are on the Internet, your local provider should carry Usenet. Through the use of your TRN or TIN newsreader, you should be able to find and subscribe to bit.listserv.2000ad-l out of the entire list of newsgroups that your site carries. Most major Internet sites, including universities, local providers, AOL and CompuServe carry bit.listserv.* groups. If your local site does not carry bit.listserv.2000ad-l, ask them to specifically do so.

If you are not on the Internet, but a member of another service which can exchange mail with the Internet, such as America Online, Bitnet, CompuServe, DELPHI, eWorld, FidoNet, Genie, MCI Mail, Microsoft Mail, Prodigy or other corporate systems, you can still participate in bit.listserv.2000ad-l through its companion mailing list, 2000ad-l. The newsgroup and mailing list are two sides of the same coin, called “Talk 2000.” The difference between the newsgroup and the mailing list is that the first is read like a bulletin board of multiple messages on Usenet, the second comes directly to your e-mail box as separate messages.

To subscribe to the mailing list, address an e-mail message to:


and put in the body of the message this command:

SUBSCRIBE 2000ad-l <firstname> <lastname>

where <firstname> is your first name and <lastname> is your last name. Drop the brackets < > around your own name in your subscription request.

After subscribing, you should receive a welcome message confirming you are subscribed, and explaining how to participate further. Once you are subscribed, you can send messages to the newsgroup via the mailing list address, 2000ad-l@usc.edu. Your e-mail will be automatically forwarded to to the moderator, placed on the newsgroup, and sent to everyone on the mailing list. Thus through the mailing list, you should be able to send and receive post to this newsgroup just like any other.

Just for today I will be unafraid. I will gather the courage to do what is right and take responsibility for my own actions. I will expect nothing from the world, but I will realize that as I give to the world, the world will give to me.


–Dear Abby column, her New Year’s resolution for 1989


As the volume of “2000ad-l” mail increases, sometimes 10, 20, 30 messages a day, often new mail list subscribers feel overwhelmed. Talk 2000 mail messages begin to overtake their life in cyberspace, just through sheer volume. When that happens, here are some other options rather than unsubscribing to the “Talk 2000” forum.

—-You could set your mailing list subscription to the “digest” mode, and receive a once daily collected digest of forum articles in your morning e-mail. To receive the digest version, send this message to listproc@usc.edu:

SET 2000ad-l mail digest

—-You could unsubscribe to 2000ad-L and participate in the Talk 2000 forum through the bit.listserv.2000ad-l newsgroup mode. Newsgroups are read more like a newspaper posted on a bulletin board. No one is obligated to read the whole newspaper. If you check in two or three times a week to bit.listserv.2000ad-l, you shouldn’t miss anything, as expiration dates on articles are normally set for seven days.

—-You could also subscribe to “Let’s Talk 2000,” the bi-monthly “heartbeat of Talk 2000,” written by the Millennium Doctor. Send a message to talk2000@rmii.com with your name, and e-mail address. If after reading “Let’s Talk 2000” every two weeks, you find a topic you would like to follow up on, all you have to do is check the archives.



The mind is a remarkable thing; it can make a hell out of heaven or a heaven out of hell. 
-Karl Menninger


Yes, under present copyright statues, whoever authors an e-mail message possesses the copyright on the article that he or she wrote, whether or not a copyright notice is given. If you wish to strengthen this protection, you may put a copyright notice on your posting in the form, “Copyright <dates> by <author/owner>.”

Just because you post an article to bit.listserv.2000ad-l, does not put it in the public domain. Nothing is in the public domain anymore unless the owner explicitly puts it in the public domain. To do so, the author/owner should state, “I grant this to the public domain.”

While the copyright control is vested in you when you post to bit.listserv.2000ad-l, the moderator(s) reserve the right to compile your posting along with others in a monthly digest version for FTP archives, or to selectively edit your posts into web site reference papers on the year 2000.

The subject of copyright cuts both ways in this newsgroup. What you write is copyrighted, but you are asked not to post in whole any copyrighted materials. You *may* post an excerpt from copyright material from a book or newspaper article, provided it meets these four standards: 1) it is a short extract, 2) you attribute the source, 3) your use doesn’t damage the commercial value of the source, and 4) you comment on its significance.

If you meet these guidelines, your use of copyright material will likely fall under the “fair use” exemption to copyright laws. The “fair use” exemption to copyright law was created to allow things such as commentary, news reporting, research and education about copyrighted works without the permission of the author.



Your manuscript is both good and original; but the part that is good
is not original, and the part that is original is not good.

–Samuel Johnson


If you are writing an academic paper, journal article or book and you want to use material from the Talk 2000 forum to support your case, you should properly cite your reference.

To quote a reference from bit.listserv.2000ad-l or 2000ad-l without using a footnote, use its more popular name, “Talk 2000.” You can write something like…in a recent round of the Talk 2000 forum on the Internet, Dr. So-&-So said, “….”

To footnote a written quote from bit.listserv.2000ad-l, you may cite it in this way, <Lastname>, <Firstname>. “<Subject Line: _____>,” in bit.listserv.2000ad-l, an Internet newsgroup, <Month, day, year>.

It is considered less than proper to cite an e-mail post in a paper without the permission of the author of that mail. Furthermore, under copyright statutes, the author of the e-mail possesses a copyright on mail that he or she wrote; incorporating it into a paper without permission of the author is a violation of that copyright.

To limit your liability for copyright infringement, we recommend you obtain permission from the original poster for use of material found in Talk 2000.

In addition to the forum, you are welcome to cite this FAQ in papers, speeches, articles or books you write. Brief quotes from this FAQ, consisting of two lines or less may simply be attributed to “Internet’s Talk 2000 host, Jay Gary.” Larger excerpts should be documented with a footnote that points back to this FAQ. For example, to footnote a quote from this particular section, the citation would be: Gary, Jay. “Frequently Asked Questions on the Year 2000,” Version 2.0, 1995, (talk2000@.rmii.com), p. 3.8.



When you take stuff from one writer, it’s plagiarism;
but when you take it from many writers, it’s research.

-Wilson Mizner


Everyone is welcomed to post articles to the Talk 2000 forum, and all viewpoints and levels of knowledge are welcome. Postings should be relevant to the folklore, festivities or future of the year 2000.

Moderation in most cases will be light. Articles will never be rejected based on whether the moderator(s) disagree with the views expressed. The “Subject:” line may, at the discretion of the moderator, be changed in the case of threads which have shifted from the initial subject. In most cases, the text of an article will not be edited by the moderator. If the text is changed for clarity or context, the moderator(s) are obligated to notify the original poster of the changes.

Only those submissions that fall outside the bounds of the charter will be returned. Any returned article will have an explanation attached to it explaining which charter provision was violated.

Prospective articles may be rejected for any of the following reasons:

1) Lack of year 2000 content
The article in question contains no comments on or questions about the turn of the millennium as stated in the charter of Talk 2000. The poster was apparently mistaken in selecting this group.

Commercial posts will be rejected. Brief notices of new books, products, services, events or workshops by sponsors will be considered if they relate to the subject. Information-not promotion will be generally accepted.

2) Threads drift off-topic
An article in question moves away from the main point already started in a thread. In that case, the discussion may be directed elsewhere. The moderator(s) also reserves the right to close off a discussion when it starts to repeat the same things over and over.

Participants are asked to keep their discussions relevant to the year 2000 and at the same time realize that there maybe other newsgroups where an discussion of the topic maybe more appropriate such as alt.conspiracy, misc.activism.militia, alt.atheism, talk.religion.newage or soc.religion.christian. Submissions in these areas will be kept to an absolute minimum and posted at the discretion of the moderator(s).

3) Excessive cross-posting
Cross-posted or forwarded articles will be dealt with more rigorously than other articles. Follow-ups to cross-posted articles may be rejected as the subject of the thread moves farther away from the topic of the year 2000. Posters are encouraged to submit original articles, rather than cross-posts to bit.listserv.2000ad-l.

4) Repetitive content
The article in question contains the same (or very similar) content as was recently posted to this group. If a post is returned marked “redundant posting,” this means one of two things; 1) that the moderator received many responses saying the same thing and choose another one to express that point, 2) that the questions or content covers ground already addressed by the newsgroup or the FAQ. Posters genuinely unaware of the repetitive nature of their article will be directed to an appropriate thread or section of this FAQ for information.

5) Excessive quoting
The article in question contains long quotes from other sources. In many cases, these posters will be asked to provide references either to the texts in question or to online means for obtaining the material. The moderator(s) will only post articles which abide by the “fair use” copyright statutes.

Generally speaking, articles which contain quotes from off-line sources should also contain an equal or greater amount of original commentary and/or be in direct response to an active thread—-in both cases, the length of the quote should not be “excessive.”

Articles which contain more included text (from previous posts) than new text may be rejected at the discretion of the individual moderator, unless the included text is less than a paragraph of ten lines.

6) Personal attacks
Articles which contain personal or “ad hominem” attacks of any sort will not be approved for posting. This guideline is intended to regulate the noise level of the newsgroup and not the substance of the discussion. This newsgroup is subject to the conventions of network etiquette as established in news.announce.newusers.

There is also the possibility of rejection for vulgar or tasteless language/content. Articles rejected for these reasons will be encouraged to be rewritten and resubmitted. It is not the purpose of moderation to completely sanitize the group, and this point may be used sparingly by the moderator(s).

7) Non-replyable e-mail address
The article in question was submitted with a return address which does not accept e-mail. It is our policy that anyone posting an article should be responsive to exchange both within the group and outside of it. Anonymous postings will not be accepted. Articles must have a replyable From: address and accompanied by the person’s name.

If the poster feels that any of these seven guidelines have been wrongly applied, he/she should take up the matter with the moderation team at the administration address: talk2000@wnrf.org. Posters who bypass this procedure and take a grievance to a subset of the forum will forfeit their right to participate in the electronic conference.

For the benefit of new readers, a standard newsgroup signature for bit.listserv.2000ad-l is appended to each article posted. This newsgroup signature describes how to submit articles to the newsgroup, how to find the web site and serves for a pointer back to the newsgroup group if the article is downloaded and printed.

Personal signatures of posters should be kept to the Usenet 4-line limit or less.

Rather than posting to the group, administrative communications, comments and inquiries should be mailed to the moderator(s) at talk2000@wnrf.org



Moderation in temper is always a virtue; but moderation in principle is always a vice.
–Thomas Paine

Subject: 3.11 HOW DO I SUBMIT A POST TO TALK 2000?

There are two ways to send in your thoughts to Talk 2000. The easiest way is to send an e-mail message to the 2000ad-l submissions address,


That “-l” is “-L”, only lower case. Most times you will want to post things to Talk 2000 in response to what someone else has said. From the mailing list, that is done by “replying to” e-mail. Posters are encouraged to keep the continuity of previous “Subject:” headers. Usually a response carries the previous subject header prefaced by an “Re:”.

The second way to jump into Talk 2000 is through the twin newsgroup, bit.listserv.2000ad-l. If you are reading the newsgroup, you can “post” a reply to an active conversation thread you see there. This is usually done by the “post,” “follow-up,” or “reply” commands while you are online, and within the message you would like to respond to.

Articles which are directly posted to bit.listserv.2000ad-l will be forwarded by your site’s news software to the submissions address, 2000ad-l@usc.edu.

Postings sent to the moderator(s) personal or request e-mail address will not be posted. Postings must bear the submitter’s name and contain a valid e-mail reply address. Postings from anonymous servers will not be accepted. Readers should wait at least 72 hours before inquiring whether their article is lost.

You are advised to keep your margin 72 characters or less. This allows for multiple follow-up posts that use included material without causing line wrapping.

Generally, postings which contain lots of inserted material are hard to follow, so please keep the included material to a minimum by removing it (if possible) or summarizing it (if necessary).

On rare occasions, the moderator(s) may add comments of his or her own in [brackets such as these -moderator]. The most usual use of this will be to supply the answer to a question with an obvious answer. In some cases, the moderator(s) may ask for comments on issues that relate to the topic at hand.

If the moderator(s) wishes to critique what is said, the post will be made from his or her personal account.



Long ago I made up my mind to let my friends have their peculiarities.
-David Grayson


In posting an article to bit.listserv.2000ad-l you will notice that your Usenet software inserts a “Keywords:” line which is blank. We encourage you to fill in this line with various descriptors or pre-assigned keywords (listed below) that have been set for bit.listserv.2000ad-l by the moderator.

You are encouraged to *keyword* your article as a convenience to those who have newsreaders which auto-select articles according to their interests. Keywords help further define your article, far beyond the “Subject:” line. This helps researchers search the compiled monthly archives of bit.listserv.2000ad-l. Ten, twenty, fifty, or hundred years after our “Talk 2000” forum wraps up, graduate students will be analyzing our discussions, pondering how millennial rhetoric shaped the dawn of the third millennium. Think of “keywording” your article as a courtesy to the seventh generation.

Please *keyword* your article with one or more of the ten keywords from the list below. Print the list out and keep it handy near your computer. Use them in lower case only, no initial caps needed. The moderator(s) reserves the right to edit your list. If you are posting an article to the newsgroup through the mailing list or some other interface that doesn’t allow you to create a “Keywords:” header, simply include the “Keywords:” line in the body of your submission. The keywords should be kept in lower case, rather than initial cap.

10 Standard Keywords for bit.listserv.2000ad-l

agendas: plans, programs, goals for 2000, 2001
books: books, periodicals, bibliographies on 2000
events: proposals or reports on meetings, festivals, holidays
future: forecasts, scenarios, trends, predictions
groups: organizations, networks, businesses, products
media: alerts or analysis on TV or radio coverage of 2000
millennium: metaphors, symbols, apocalytic, utopias
society: cultural history of 2000, ideology, civic implications
time: calendar, chronology, cosmology
usenet: member profiles, newsgroup or website notices, usenet tips, FAQs



The best way to predict the future is to create it.
-Alan Kay

Subject: 3.13 WHERE IS THE TALK 2000 WEB SITE?

The Talk 2000 Forum has a web site for participants that provides orientation, documentation and networking. It also serves as a “welcome mat” for people just hearing about the forum. To visit the Talk 2000 Forum web site, set your web browser URL to:


You will find this web site is built around six key selections:

1. Intro: Take the year 2000 tour
2. Resources: Visit with millennial groups and authors
3. Tutorial: Brief yourself on the Talk 2000 forum and archives
4. Profiles: Meet other Talk 2000 participants
5. Articles: Trace the history of Talk 2000
6. Store: Shop from the Talk 2000 store

The first three web selections offer an “interactive” version of this FAQ. The third selection will also give you a way to reference the “Talk 2000” monthly archives. The fourth, fifth and sixth selection are unique to the web site and will provide excellent background books and materials on the history of bimillennial thinking, and a opportunity to learn about the background of featured “Talk 2000” participants.



This world is indeed a living being endowed with a soul and intelligence.


This FAQ came into being in September 1995, shortly after the conception of the Talk 2000 Forum. Comments about, suggestions about or corrections to this FAQ are welcomed. If you would like to recommend this posting be changed in some way, the method most appreciated is to make the desired modifications to the paragraph of the FAQ in question, and then send your modified posting to the FAQ maintainer. If you notice that a frequently asked question is missing, this would apply also, please send it (along with the answer!) for inclusion in this document.

Contributions, comments and changes should be directed to the FAQ maintainer at: talk2000@wnrf.org

I’d like to acknowledge the following people who reviewed early drafts of this FAQ and made valuable suggestions for modifications, or otherwise contributed to the FAQ, Steven O’Leary <soleary@rcf.usc.edu>, Hillel Schwartz <hschwartz@ucsd.edu>, and Chris Coleman <coleman@admin.humberc.on.ca>. The responsibility for remaining ambiguities, errors and difficult-to-read paragraphs lie with me. :–)

Change                      Log:

Version    Date                 Comments

1.0        1 Sept 1995          Initial Release

1.5        1 Dec 1995           Newsgroup Release

2.0 		 1 Sept 1996          Second Edition Release



FAQs are the first generation of community memory.
–Eugene Miya


The information in this post is likely to change relatively quickly. If this is more than two months old then you should obtain a new copy. The FAQ on the year 2000 comes in three parts. You can retrieve the latest copies of this document via e-mail. Just send an e-mail to mailto:listproc@usc.eduwith this command in the body of the message:

GET 2000ad-l faq2000

Within a short time a 107k file will be automatically forwarded to your e-mail box.



By all means marry; if you get a good wife, you’ll become happy;
if you get a bad one, you’ll become a philosopher.


This file is Part 3 of the three-part FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) for the Talk 2000 Forum, which incorporates both the “bit.listserv.2000ad-l” newsgroup and the “2000ad-l@usc.edu” mailing list.

You are welcome to download the complete FAQ (ASCII, 113K).

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ON THE YEAR 2000: An introduction to the Talk 2000 Forum, Version 2.0 – 1 December 1995. Copyright 1995 by Jay E. Gary. All rights reserved.

 Talk 2000 Forum

Download FAQ

Most recent revisionDecember 27, 1995
Web Weaver: Chris Coleman

The Talk2000 web site is sponsored by Humber College

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Resources on the Bimillennial

Talk 2000Resources on the Bimillennial
Since the mid-60s, more than 2,000 books on the year 2000 have been published. The majority are industry specific, and discuss national issues such as education, transportation or literacy by the year 2000. About 5 percent look at the year 2000 from an integrated social perspective. This bibliography falls under this later category. The books listed below should be available in your local library or bookstore.

2.1 What are the best introductory books on the year 2000?

2.2 What books should I read on 2000 for pleasure?

2.3 What books should I read if I’m active in Talk 2000?

2.4 What books can help me research millennialism & 2000?

2.5 What books can help me research global goals & 2000?

2.6 What books can help me learn about future studies?

2.7 What books can help me learn about public policy &2000?

2.8 What groups are developing agendas for the year 2000?

2.9 What groups offer further bimillennial resources? 

YEAR 2000?

If you have never thought about the year 2000, here are some recommended books. They assume no knowledge of the bimillennial, and will give you a sound grasp of the basics.

Megatrends 2000
John Naisbitt & Patricia Aburdene, Morrow, 1990
In a widely read trends books, Naisbitt & Aburdene include an upbeat piece on “the millennium as a metaphor for the future” in their introduction and in the conclusion to chapter 9.
ISBN: 0-688-07224-0.

The Millennium Book
Gail & Dan Collins, Doubleday, 1991
Take a fun look at the year 2000 and its festivities. Contains 26 top-ten lists of the last millennium, including the Top Tunes, Ten Worst Wars, or Twelve Greatest Women. Perfect for any Millennium’s Eve trivia buff who wants to get ready for “the biggest New Year’s Eve in a 1,000 years.” ISBN 0-385-41165-0.

The Star of 2000
Jay Gary, Bimillennial, 1994
A new star of Bethlehem has now appeared-the year 2000. This spiritual magnet is now drawing our civilization, which began with the birth of Jesus, to celebrate its 2,000th anniversary. Stories, inspiration and projections combine to share how this journey of hope will unfold from 1996 to 2001 to become the greatest celebration in the history of civilization. ISBN 0-9641388-0-8.


When you wish upon a star, your dreams come true.
–Jiminy Cricket


This is recreational reading on the year 2000 from various novels, future histories, or science fiction books. As Marshall McLuhan said, “Anyone who tries to make a distinction between education and entertainment doesn’t know the first thing about either.”

Looking Backwards: 2000-1887
Edward Bellamy, STMS, 1995, [1887]
Good Morning, It’s A.D. 2000! As people prepared to celebrate the turn of the century a 100 years ago, the most popular book of the day was about life in year 2000. Bellamy’s utopian novel sold more than 10 million copies. The story revolves around Mr. Julian West, a wealthy Bostonian man who was an insomniac. As fortune would have it, one day in May 1887, West is hypnotized to sleep only to wake up 113 years later, on September 10, 2000, to find an American utopia. Literary historians claim Looking Backwards had an impact on American society equal to classics such as Uncle Tom’s Cabin and Ben Hur. ISBN: 0-312-10591-6.

2001: A Space Odyssey
Arthur C. Clarke, New American Library, 1968
In the words of Life magazine, the book and MGM movie by Clarke and Stanley Kubrick “dazzles the eyes and gnaws the mind.” 2001 is the story of a black enigma found on the moon, a spacecraft sent to Jupiter to unravel the mystery, an intelligent computer gone insane, one man’s search for his intelligent equal among alien stars and the birth of a Star Child.

The Year 2000: An anthology
Harry Harrison, editor, Berkeley, 1970, 1972.
Thirteen distinguished science fiction writers share their vision of life in the year 2000. Considered brilliant, prophetic and frightening, they contribute to our understanding of where humanity is going, how and to what end. ISBN: 425-02117-095.

A Creed for the Third Millennium
Colleen McCullough, Harper & Row, 1985.
A best-selling novelist weaves a spell-binding tale of power, self-deceit and manipulation. Join Dr. Joshua Christian, during the bimillennial year of 2033, as he leads a demoralized American public out of “millennium neurosis” only to experience a surprise climax. ISBN 0-06-015301-6.

First Lady of the World
Robert Muller, World Happiness, 1991
A novel by a former UN official of how the first woman Secretary General brings a renaissance to world affairs and prepares the world to celebrate the year 2000. A tale of love, courage, eastern mysticism and self-sacrifice. ISBN: 1-880455-01-3.

Mega-Traumas: America at the Year 2000
Richard D. Lamm, Houghton, 1985
After the election of 2000, the new president calls in the cabinet appointees to help her write the State of the Union message. She learns that American is a nation in liquidation. Is this inevitable? In a more hopeful scenario, the author shows how the U.S. can avoid these projected disasters. ISBN: 0-39537-91-21.

The Third Millennium
Brian Stableford and David Langford, Knofp, 1985
If you lived in A.D. 3000, what would the history of the world look like since A.D. 2000? Here is a lively glimpse of the future through topics such as war and peace, environmental crises and space exploration. ISBN: O-394-74151-X.


The future ain’t what it used to be.
-Arthur C. Clarke


This is intermediate reading on the bimillennial. For regular participants in bit.listserv.2000ad-l, these books are indispensable.

Century’s End
Hillel Schwartz, Doubleday, 1990
Here is the definitive cultural history of the fin de siecle, from the 990s through the 1990s. Explains how the “century-end effect” will impact the ’90s, from the fear of decay and fantasies of renewal. Superb material on “The Legend of the Year 2000”–a storehouse of research. ISBN: 0-385-24379-0. (The paperback edition will be released in late ’95.)

William Johnston, Transaction, 1991
A study of the “cult of anniversaries” in Western Europe and United States today from a postmodern perspective. Covers the great calendar, the humanist tradition and the power of bimillennial consciousness. ISBN: 0-88738-375-0.

The Anniversary Compulsion
Peter Aykroyd, Dundurn, 1992
A classic study of how a mega-anniversary can be successfully conceptualized and staged, based on Canada’s experience with their centennial in 1967. Offers anniversary axioms for the unprecedented worldwide celebrations at the advent of the 21st century. Excellent reading for civic or corporate leaders planning bimillennial celebrations. ISBN: 1-5002-185-0.

Preparing for 2000
Anju Reejhsinghani, Millennium Institute, 1995
A very short impressionistic survey of national attitudes toward the turn of the millennium and preparation for celebration, including reports on the significance of the year 2000, the use of various calendars, the observation of anniversaries, and the significance of gift-giving.

Framework for the Preparation of the Year 2000
Robert Muller, Quinnipiac, 1994.
A proposal for how the United Nations community should prepare for the advent of the third millennium. Contains Muller’s “My Dream 2000” poem and excellent documentation of the early calls to celebrate the bimillennium going back to Earth Day ’77. ISBN: 1-885007-07-8.

Tertio Millennio Adveniente
Pope John Paul II, Vatican Press, 1994.
An apostolic letter to the Church on preparation for the jubilee of the year 2000. Includes theological reflections on the Incarnation, the tradition of Holy Years and the preparations for celebration of the Great Jubilee. This document is available through Pauline Books & Media, ISBN: 0-8198-7381-0 or via a Web site:

Pablo Neruda, [1974] trans. by Azul Editions, 1992
Neruda (1904-1973), the Nobel Prize poet from Chile, embraces the “three equal, commonly shared zeros” and weighs our history in the balance. 2000 has been called Neruda’s “missal of presentiments and his prayer book of survival” in the human struggle to achieve the longed-for peace of a new history. ISBN: 0-9632363-0-X.


Anyone bored these days is not paying attention.
-Bill Copeland


This is a specialized reading list on the year 2000 and its relationship to various millenarian or utopian ideas. There are hundreds of books each year written on this subject. Those listed here reflect different aspects of millennialism and its relationship to the year 2000.

The Millennium Survival Kit
John Ohliger, Basic Choices, Madison, WI, 1990
Offers tips to survive the pell-mell rush into the new millennium. A 100-page study kit with more than 350 footnotes to help adult educators reflect on existential time at the turn of the millennium. For ordering information, e-mail: johliger@facstaff.wisc.edu.

The Meaning of the Millennium
Robert Clouse, InterVarsity, 1977
A comparative study of the three classic theological views on the millennial reign of Christ: premillennial, amillennial and postmillennial.
ISBN: 0-87784-794-0.

Soothsayers of the Second Advent
William Alnor, Revell, 1989
A compelling expose by an evangelical investigative reporter of “doomsday-dating, pin-the-tail-on-the-Antichrist, and other non-biblical games that Christians play.” ISBN: 0-8007-5324-0.

Arguing the Apocalypse
Steven O’Leary, Oxford, 1994
Maps the millennial rhetoric of the 1840’s and 1980’s and probes the apparent human need to view history as symbolic drama-either comic or tragic. ISBN: 0-19-508045-9.

The Sense of an Ending
Frank Kermode, Oxford, 1966
A classic study of literature showing how writers impose their “fictions” upon the face of eternity to reflect the apocalyptic spirit. ISBN: 0-19-5000770-0.

The Millennial Project
Marshall Savage, Little-Brown, 1992, 1994
We live on a planet that cannot sustain the twin problem of overpopulation and environmental destruction. In order to survive, Savage proposes we must reach the stars by building up a space-based civilization “in eight easy steps.” Here is “millennialism” from a techno-space mentality. ISBN: 0-316-77163-5.

The Millennium Myth
Michael Grosso, Quest, 1995
From Joachim of Fiore to Adolf Hitler, from Lenin to Gaia, the twists and turns of the millennial myth is weaved. Grosso claims that in our day technology and alternative spirituality also shape the prophetic vision of the western world. ISBN: 0-8356-0711-9.

Millennialism: An International Bibliography
Ted Daniels. Garland Publishing, 1992.
This is the only book-length bibliographic treatment of the subject. It takes in more than 3,000 books and articles on the subject, most from the fields of sociology, history, anthropology, literature, and political science, and reviews material in most European languages.


The millennium affects people the way moonlight affects
werewolves, the way sirens affect dogs, the way that bizarre
black monolith affected the apes in ‘2001.’

–Peter Carlson


Starting in the early ’70s, the year 2000 became the mother of all target dates for global goals. Here is a list of books on this “agenda 2000” phenomena.

Reinventing the Future
Rushworth Kidder, MIT Press, 1989
What new century resolutions should humanity make as it enters the 21st century? Here is an “Agenda 2000” with 95 global goals in the areas of development, peace, civilization and ethics. ISBN: 0-262-11146-2.

Global 2000 Revisited
Gerald Barney, Millennium Institute, 1993
A lucid assessment of the critical needs facing our world in order to achieve a “sustainable future for Earth” for the year 2000 and beyond. Includes a call to cross the threshold into the new millennium, from 1999 to 2001 that would leave a legacy for future generations. ISBN: 0-937585-00-9.

Wild Hope
Tom Sine, Word, 1991
As we stand poised on the threshold of a new century, how should we deal with the crises facing the human community? Christian futurist Tom Sine offers a challenge to complacency and a call to creative living, in what Jimmy Carter calls “…an important book for all people of faith.” ISBN: 0-849931-31-2.

Our Globe and How to Reach It
David Barrett and Todd Johnson, New Hope, 1990.
Illuminates the race of the world Christian movement towards A.D. 2000 through starting-line statistics, finish-line goals and a 100-point global action plan. This is the eighth book in an AD 2000 series on global agendas. ISBN: 0-936625-92-9.



We are still tackling 20-year problems with five year plans,
staffed with two-year personnel,
working on one-year appropriations.
It’s simply not good enough.

–Harlan Cleveland


In the mid-60s, projections toward the year 2000 gave birth to the modern future study movement. Riding this wave were authors such as Bertrand de Jouvenel, Robert Jungk, Alvin Toffler and Herman Kahn. Here is a list of introductory books in this field.

The Study of the Future
Edward Cornish, World Future Society, 1977
A definitive introduction to the study of the future, its origins, its ideas and methods. Contains an excellent guide to future-oriented organizations, periodicals and books. ISBN: 0-930242-03-3.

What Futurists Believe
Joseph Coates and Jennifer Jarrett, eds., World Future Society, 1989.
An in-depth examination of the thoughts and beliefs of 17 futurists, including Peter Drucker, Daniel Bell, Richard Lamm, Kenneth Boulding and Dennis Meadows. ISBN: 0-912338-66-0.

Futurehype: the tyranny of prophecy
Max Dublin, Plume, 1992
On the eve of the next millennium, this book challenges the foolishness of futurology by taking a scalpel to all the the imagined utopias and counter-utopias, questioning their methodology and morals. ISBN: 0-452268-00-1.

Encyclopedia of the Future
George T. Kurian and Graham Molitor, eds., Macmillan, (forthcoming)



If we are to arrive at the year 2000 and view about us a
world worth living in and worth turning over to future generations,
we must conceive most of that world today and build it with every succeeding tomorrow.

–Glenn T. Seaborg


The Great Turning
Craig Schindler and Gary Lapid, Bear, 1989.
Offers global vision and practical tools to create a new era of human dignity and make the “Great Turning” of the millennium a true turning point in the way nations and communities manage conflicts. ISBN: 0-939680-51-3.

The American Hour
Os Guinness, Free Press, 1993
At the climax of the “American century” and on the eve of a “pax moderna,” this book examines the uneasy but necessary relationship of religion to public life and offers suggestions on how a common vision for the common good might be developed. ISBN: 0-02-913173-1.

On the Eve of the Millennium
Conor Cruise O’Brien, Free Press, 1995
Sub-titled, “the future of democracy in an age of unreason,” an Irish statesman looks at the apocalyptic threats which religion and nationalism bring to democracies founded on the Enlightenment. Includes a chapter which evaluates the British “Millennium Commission.”



Things fall apart: the centre cannot hold;
Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world…

–W.B. Yeat’s poem, “The Second Coming”


There are more than 100 major international organizations with goals for the year 2000. Some take the millennial milestone as a finish line, others as the starting gate. This is a short list of groups which aim to harness the emotional energy of the approaching millennium for positive actions by governments, non-profits and individuals. Each group listed has developed a coalition for widespread public action to forward a global agenda which pivots off the year 2000/2001.

AD 2000 & BEYOND MOVEMENT: “A Church for Every People by the Year 2000”
In light of the millennial milestone, the AD 2000 & Beyond Movement offers conferences, resources, and “track” networks for church leaders committed to development work among indigenous peoples. Since 1989, this network has spawned more than 100 national or regional AD 2000 consultations.
AD 2000 & Beyond Movement
Web Site: http://www.ad2000.org/

AGENDA 21: “The Earth Summit Strategy to Save Our Planet”
The Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro (UNCED) brought together nearly 40,000 people and 100 heads of state to draft a global action plan to confront and overcome the most pressing environmental and economic problems facing our planet. The main binding agreement, signed by all 172 participating nations, was called Agenda 21. The United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) is implementing the recommendations of the Agenda 21. The Commission of Sustainable Development (CSD) is monitoring how far Agenda 21 has been implemented.
UN Commission on Sustainable Development
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
P.O. Box 30552
Nairobi, KENYA
Web Site: http://www.undp.org/
E-mail: ipaunep@undp.org
Gopher: gopher://gopher.igc.apc.org/ [look under CSD in United Nations, under Econet]
Conference: There is also a “Citnet” conference on Econet run by the Citizens Network for Sustainable Development.

FIRST MILLENNIAL FOUNDATION: “Colonizing the Galaxy in Eight Easy Steps”
To leave planet Earth and colonize space is not just science fiction any more, but our human destiny. The First Millennial Foundation feels this task will occupy mankind for the next thousand years. They help volunteers work together on a pragmatic plan toward this end, which starts with a colony at sea by 2008. For information, contact:
First Millennial Foundation
P.O. Box 347
Rifle, CO 81650
(303) 625-3273
BBS: (303) 625-3273
Web Site: 
E-mail: mtsavage@pipeline.com

GOALS 2000: “Educate America Act”
In an effort to raise academic achievement by 2000, President Clinton signed into law the “Goals 2000: Educate America Act” on March 31, 1994. The U.S. Department of Education maintains a web site on this legislation.
Goals 2000
600 Independence Ave, Ste 4000
Washington, DC 20202-6100
(202) 401-0039
Web site:

MILLENNIUM INSTITUTE: “A Sustainable Future for the Earth”
The Millennium Institute grew out of the widely respected _Global 2000 Report to the President_. Through programs, publications and software they promote long-term integrated global thinking about economic and environmental issues to “build a sustainable future for the Earth.” In collaboration with other groups, the Institute is designing a series of events and social engagements to mark and celebrate the year 2000 as a milestone and transition to a new era.
The Millennium Institute
1117 North 19th Street, Ste 900
Arlington, VA 2209-1718
(703) 841-0048
Web site: http://www.igc.apc.org/millennium/

MILLENNIUM PROJECT: “Forecasting the future of the next century”
The Millennium Project has been commissioned by the United Nations University to help organize futures research on an international basis, such that the forecasts of the next 100 years would be continuously up-dated and disseminated through a variety of media for consideration in public policy, advanced training, public education, and systematic feedback.
The Millennium Project Feasibility Study
The United Nations University/American Council
4421 Garrison Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20016-2055
(202) 686-5179
Mailing List:
 millen-l at listserv@listserv.america.edu
Web Site: http://nko.mhpcc.edu/millennium/Millennium_Project.html
E-mail: jglenn@igc.apc.org

NATIONAL MILLENNIUM FOUNDATION: “Looking to the future with foresight”
The National Millennium Foundation, in Washington, D.C. traces its roots by to 1987. By 1989, its leaders had drafted model legislation to circulate to the Congress and White House. The Foundation’s purpose is to undergird the study of possible futures in commemorating the dawn of the third millennium, through celebrations in the year 2000 and beyond. Beyond legislative action, they serve as clearinghouse for events and ideas in the United States.
The National Millennium Foundation
1331 Pennsylvania Ave, NW #909
Washington, DC 20004-1703
(202) 342-1050

PROJECT GLOBAL 2000: “Planning for a new century”
In 1979, Global Education Associates called for world wide bimillennial celebrations of life in the year 2000 preceded by “unparalleled thinking, education and planning for a just and sustainable human world order.” As a world wide citizens movement of some twenty non-governmental and inter-governmental organization, Project Global 2000 has as its purpose is to raise the level of public demand for effective, democratically based policies on disarmament, economic development and environmental protection as the necessary framework for global security. For information on its Earth Covenant, collaborative research and policy development councils, write:
Project Global 2000
Global Education Associates
475 Riverside Drive, Suite 1848
New York, NY 10115
(212) 870-3290

WORLD 2000: “Shaping a New Global System”
World 2000 is an international planning dialogue to achieve sustainable world development by the middle of the 21st century. It works primarily through project teams and also track meetings at major assemblies, such as the World Future Society. It’s goal is to help the global system rise to a higher state of organization, through collective human choices, to achieve sustainable development. For more information, contact:
World 2000
203 Monroe Hall, GWU
George Washington University, DC, 20052
(202) 994-5975
Web Site: http://gwis2.circ.gwu.edu/~halal



So this is utopia, is it? Well, I beg your pardon; I thought it was Hell.
-Max Beerbohm




Here is a list of organizations that offer year 2000 resources, whether pamphlets, newsletters, speakers, books, or online resources.

2,000 DAYS BEFORE 2,000: “Do something each day you ordinarily won’t”
Adrienne Sioux Koopersmith has big plans for the next 2,000 days. Lose a pound a day-and date a different man each night. All of this to culminate at midnight Dec. 31, 1999, when the new Koopersmith will marry the most promising of her 2,000 dates, with Dick Clark at Time’s Square, presiding, of course. In a fit of “divine inspiration,” or perhaps insanity, Chicago artist and model, Adrienne Sioux Koopersmith, has decided to turn her personal challenge into a global one. She is urging everyone to resolve to accomplish one new thing you ordinarily wouldn’t every day from now till 2000. “It can be as simple as eliminating one cookie from your diet, or taking a new way home.” Or, she said, declare, “I’ll have this place cleaned up by the new millennium.” And then pick up one piece of clutter each day. That way, when the clock strikes midnight on December 31, 1999, you can say you’ve accomplished 2,000 things before 2000. For more information, send a SASE (with 55 cents postage affixed) to:
2000 Days Before 2000
1437 West Rosemont -1W
Chicago, IL 60660
(312) 743-5341

21STC MAGAZINE: “Advancing Knowledge in the New Century”
This online publication of Columbia University is dedicated to help people consider the meaning and achievements of research as we cross the millennial threshold. Interdisciplinary and cross-cultural, 21stC aims to take you into the ideas that research generates in virtually all disciplines.
21stC Magazine
Columbia University
116 Street Broadway
New York, NY 10027
Web site: http://www.21stc.org/

CALENDAR REFORM: “Improving the World Calendar”
Featuring “The World Calendar,” this page is dedicated to the study of calendar change. Its aims are to examine standing proposals; to collect information on past calendar reforms; and to explore puzzles and paradoxes which arise from time-keeping.
Web Site: http://ecuvax.cis.ecu.edu/~pymccart/calendar-reform.htm

CELEBRATION 2000: “Helping you Celebrate Christ’s 2,000th anniversary”
Founded in 1989, Celebration 2000 is a consulting group which supports creative projects whose aim is “to commemorate the 2,000th anniversary of the birth of Christ.” It provides bimillennial books, speakers and networking opportunities. For information, contact:
Celebration 2000
Web Site: http://www.christianfutures.com

CENTER FOR UTOPIAN STUDIES: “‘No where’ in Cyberspace”
This web site explores utopian literature, art, and theory, plus their dystopian counterparts. It includes commentary/criticism of works by Plato, Machiavelli, More, Bacon, Hobbes, Bellamy, Wells, etc. The site also features exploration of experimental communities worldwide.
Center for Utopian/Dystopian Studies
Web Site: 
Email: wooda@ouvaxa.cats.ohiou.edu

CLUB 2000: “Your membership in the new millennium”
Creates unique year 2000 products for the public and markets an annual membership package including travel, software products and festival 2000 information. Coffee shops, gift shops, or novelty shops can apply to host a “celebration center” of lifestyle products.
Club 2000
60 Fenton, Suite 8, Dept C.
Livermore, CA 94550
(408) 251-2000
Web Site: 
E-mail: gheiner@club2000.xo.com

MILLENNIUM COMMISSION: “Helping U.K. Celebrate the New Millennium”
This is the first of many “national commission” to come, which aspire to help their country celebrate the year 2000. The Millennium Commission receives a portion of every lottery dollar collected in the U.K. and awards up to a 50% grant to organizations undertaking public benefit millennium projects. For an introductory booklet on the U.K. commission, write:
The Millennium Commission
2 Little Smith Street
London SW1P 3DH, U.K.
Fax: (44) 71-340-2000

MILLENNIUM FOUNDATION OF CANADA: “Legacies for the future”
Encourages individuals, schools and community groups to create special projects and legacies to mark the year 2000 and leave “Wills for the Earth,” financial bequests to recognized environmental organizations.
The Millennium Foundation of Canada
2050 Nelson Street, Ste 1904
Vancouver, BC V6G 1N6 CANADA
(604) 298-6240
Web Site: http://www.millennia.org/

MILLENNIUM’S END: “A techo-thriller roleplaying game”
It’s 1999 and random death is a fact of life due to terrorist. Join an elite counter-terrorist group to head off nuclear, biological, and chemical blackmail. Millennium’s End is the best selling, fast-paced techno-thriller roleplaying game from Chameleon Eclectic. Realistic rules and a unique near-future setting make it the choice for action-adventure fans.
Phone: (800) 435-9930 or (703) 953-1658
Web Site:

MILLENNIUM FEVER: “SOS messages from millennial militia warriors”
Strange, apocalyptic postings originating from the future describe a world at war, caused by economic chaos, with scattered groups of heroic cyberwarriors leading a brave militia antiwar movement. Apparently, around the turn of the millennium (mid-1999), a machine or program called the CyberspaceTime Transpositor is being used by a renegade cyberwarrior named Gabriel to post messages across time. SOS messages, prophetic political commentary, audio files (including songs) and graphics have been received “from the future.” The Brotherhood of Cyberwarriors makes a desperate attempt to alter the course of history.
E-mail: maniacs@crawford.com
Web Site: http://www.crawford.com/media.maniacs/fever.html

MILLENNIUM MATTERS: “The new age will dawn in the new millennium.
This is an electronic mailing list on the New Age, originating from the Millennium Matters folder in America OnLine. It provides “information, documentation, and personal revelations about the coming millennium period.” It is a place to post “new age prophecy, share what astrology and divination have to say about the years leading to the millennium, and ponder various earth changes, weird weather, pyramids or alien contacts.”
Mailing List: mmlist-l at listserv@newciv.org
Newsgroup: alt.future.millennium
Web Site: http://www.newciv.org/millennium_matters/

MILLENNIUM PROPHECY REPORT: “It’s not the end of the world!”
The millennium is coming and things are going to get pretty weird, like oceanfront lots in Nebraska…flying saucers on swizzle sticks…out-of-body travel…peace on earth. Keep track of the best and worst of this millennial culture from the “Doomsday Man.” For subscription information to the Millennium Prophecy Report (MPR), contact:
Millennium Watch Institute
P.O. Box 34021
Philadelphia, PA 19101-4021
(215) 662-5677

NEW MILLENNIUM DESIGNS: “Millennial Artistic Casual Wear”
Markets a line of artistic casual clothing under the trademark of “World Countdown 2000.” Their T-shirts feature slogans such as “…where we’ve been, where we are, where we’re going…” or “Celebrating humanity’s march into a new century.”
New Millennium Designs
11 Darmouth St.
Nashua, NH 03060
(603) 880-0938

ROYAL GREENWICH OBSERVATORY: “Surveying time and the cosmos”
Founded by Charles II in 1675, R.G.O. is the most famous astronomical observatory in the world. They provide astrometric measures, time services, almanacs and for use by navigators and surveyors. With the development of astrophysics during this present century they now do investigative science. Their web site has an excellent section, with leaflets on time, supernovas, eclipses, leap years, 2000 AD, etc.
Royal Greenwich Observatory
Madingley Road
Cambridge, CB3 0EZ, United Kingdom
(+44) 1223 374000
Web site: http://www.ast.cam.ac.uk/RGO

SOCIETY FOR UTOPIAN STUDIES: “Utopias and Utopianism”
Founded in 1976, the Society for Utopian Studies is an international, interdisciplinary association devoted to the study of utopianism, or the idea of how a “perfect society” might be achieved. They publish the journal “Utopian Studies” and a newsletter on conferences and workshops. They also operate an open mailing list which discusses utopian politics, philosophy, psychology, the arts and urban planning.
Mailing List: utopia-l at listserv@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu
Email: utopia-l-request@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu

STRANGE DAYS: “Its 2k, history ends and begins right here, right now.”
It’s two days before 2000, and strange days are for real in Los Angeles, torn by violence and crime. The ultimate experience is to “jack in” by attaching a “squid” to your skull, and view uncut, recorded experiences of other people. When Lenny Nero (Ralph Fiennes), dealer in contraband tapes, and Mace (Angela Bassett) discover a friend who is snuffed out on tape, the search for their killer begins. The movie’s climax comes in the closing seconds of 2000, during the “mother of all parties” in downtown L.A. Released October 1995 by 20th Century Fox.
Web site: http://www.strangedays.com/
Web site: http://movieweb.com/movie/strangedays/

TORONTO/2000: “Shaping the Great Millennium”
Since 1980, various futurists in Toronto have been preparing their city for the twenty-first century, through monthly “Foresight Seminars” and annual commemorations such as UN Day or Earth Day. Founder of the Millennium Council of Canada, a network of year 2000 organizations.In addition, various “Prelude 2000” projects have been initiated, including a great millennium “Global Singalong” featuring international choirs of children is planned for noon, January 1, 2000. For sheet music on “Once in a Thousand Years,” “The Great Millennium Prayer” and “Morning Break,” send $10.00 to:
Toronto 2000
Suite 2000, 390 Bay Street
Toronto, Ontario, CANADA M5H 2Y2
(416) 214-2000

THIRD MILLENNIUM: “Advocates for the future”
Third Millennium is a national non-profit advocacy organization, started by young Americans who are concerned that U.S. fiscal policy is piling up massive debts ontop of Generation X. This “taxation without representation” will make it increasingly difficult to face the mounting social and environmental challenges that are anticipated in the next millennium. For information on annual membership, contact:
Third Millennium
P.O. Box 20866
New York, NY 10023
Web Site: http://www.thirdmil.org/

TRANSFORMATION 2000: “Creating the greatest show on earth”
Imagine making an epic Hollywood movie about how “the year 2000 was the turning point for humanity to become truly civilized.” And imagine how the movie itself creates a catalyst to bring everything together to help establish a sustainable future. This is the aim of Transformation 2000, which plans to premier its epic film on New Year’s Day with a “Live Aid” global telecast.
Transformation 2000
P.O. Box 1122
Del Mar, CA 92014
(619) 481-7751
Web site:

WAYSEE: “The World Association for Celebrating the Year 2000”
Founded in 1963 as the first millennial organization, WAYSEE 2000 seeks to organize town and city celebrations worldwide to mark the year 2000. Its now has 217 member municipalities in 29 countries. WAYSEE 2000 has encouraged the creation of numerous local celebration arenas, with trees which will be fully grown by the year 2000. In 1975 a “25 point plan” was launched to help cities make environmental improvements and celebrate their local history in anticipation of the year 2000. WAYSEE 2000 also encourages cities to create time capsules for future generations.
31 Clerkenwell Close
London, EC1R OAT England

WELCOME 2000 / BIENVENUE 2000: “Linking Cities through Satellite Link Ups”
A video and teleconference company offerings services to city festivals which desire to mark the arrival of the year 2000 with other cities across the 24-time zones through the use of satellite link ups and giant screen projections. Strong connections to Francophone and English speaking countries.
Year 2000 World Festivities Corporation
1 Place Ville-Marie, Suite 2821
Montreal, Quebec, H3B 4R4,Canada
(514) 862-2823

WORLD COUNCIL OF CHURCHES: “Preparing for an Ecumenical Jubilee”
The 324-member fellowship of churches, from virtually all Christian traditions, will open their celebrations of the year 2000 in 1998, in Zimbabwe, with an Eighth “Jubilee” Assembly, fifty years after its founding. Various proposals for meaningful commemoration of the bimillennial are now circulating, starting in 1999 with joint celebrations in Bethlehem by heads of Christian churches/communions to a common celebration of Easter in the year 2001 by Orthodox and Protestant churches. For more information, request document no. 12, “Ecumenical Observance of the Year 2000,” released in September 1994 by Dr. Konrad Raiser.
World Council of Churches
150 Route de Ferney
P.O. Box 2100
1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland
Web site: 

WORLD FUTURE SOCIETY: “Studying Alternative Futures”
The World Future Society was founded in 1966 as an association of people interested in the study of future. Today there are more than 30,000 members in 80 countries. Although talk about the year 2000 is old hat for most futurists, annual membership in the society lets you receive “The Futurist,” a bimonthly magazine, discounts on future-oriented books and invitations to conferences.
World Future Society
7910 Woodmont, Rm 450
Bethesda, MD 20814
(301) 656-8274

WRIGHT THINKING: “The World Millennium Snapshot”
A proposal to make January 1, 2000 the most photographed and most videographed moment in human history. The “World Millennium Snapshot” intends to create a massive mega-participatory project of people everywhere to create images at the moment, hour and day of the coming turn of the third millennium. Following the event, millions of images would be placed in a navigable holomorph database for future generations. For information on this and other “new millennium” proposals, contact:
Wright Thinking
14161 Riverside Drive, #3
Sherman Oaks, CA 91423
(818) 784-0325

YEAR 2000 COMPUTER CRISIS: “The computer clock is ticking…”
For many computer systems, the year 2000 will bring doomsday, given that most software programs were never designed to go past 1999. It is estimated that business will spend $100 billion worldwide in a programming effort to fix this faulty standard. The Year 2000 Information Center allows Internet users to get the latest facts and information on the Year 2000 computer crisis, and provides a forum for the discussion of possible solutions. It also hosts a continually updated clock showing the number of years, days, hours, minutes and seconds remaining until Jan. 1, 2000. For information contact:
Year 2000 Information Center
Brampton, Ont, Canada
(905) 792-8706
Web site: http://arganet.tenagra.com/year2000/
Mailing List: Year2000-L

The person who says, ‘It can’t be done,’ should not interfere with the person who is doing it.
–Chinese Proverb

This is the second in a series of three postings of Frequently Asked Questions for the Talk 2000 forum, which incorporates both the “bit.listserv.2000ad-l” newsgroup and the “2000ad-l@usc.edu” mailing list. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ON THE YEAR 2000: An introduction to the Talk 2000 Forum, Version 2.0 – 1 December 1995. Copyright 1995 by Jay E. Gary. All rights reserved.

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Most recent revisionNovember 29, 1995
Web Weaver: Chris Coleman

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Shaping the Great Millennium

Here  is an early essay on what the turn of the millennium would bring by by Don Toppin, Canadian composer, educator and philosopher. Continue reading

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